CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2020-2021 – Detailed Syllabus – eSaral

This year CBSE board has revised the class 12 Biology Syllabus. The New revised syllabus of biology contains chapters like Genetics and Evolution, Biotechnology and its Applications, and others. If you are looking for a Detailed CBSE Class 12 biology syllabus then read this post till the end.

By going through the syllabus students will get an idea about all the units and chapters of class 12 Biology.

### Class 12 Biology Chapters

1. Reproduction in Organisms
2. Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
3. Human Reproduction
4. Reproductive Health
5. Principles of Inheritance and Variation
6. Molecular Basis of Inheritance
7. Evolution
8. Human Health and Diseases
9. Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
10. Microbes in Human Welfare
11. Biotechnology – Principles and Processes
12. Biotechnology and its Application
13. Organisms and Populations
14. Ecosystem
15. Biodiversity and its Conservation
16. Environmental Issues

Class 12 Biology Syllabus includes lots of different Important topics of Biology. These topics will helps you to build a good foundation to learn Advanced Topics of Biology.

Best Books for NEET preparations

If you have any Confusion related to Class 12 Biology Syllabus then feel free to ask in the comments section down below.

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CBSE Class 12 Math Syllabus 2020-2021 – Detailed Syllabus – eSaral

According to the CBSE board class 12 Math syllabus of session 2020 – 2021 will be the same as session 2019 – 2020 which means there will be no change in the syllabus.

By going through the syllabus students will get the idea about all the units and chapters of class 12 Math.

 UNIT TOPICS Unit-I: Sets and Functions Sets   ·Sets and their representations. Empty set.Finite and Infinite sets Equal sets.Subsets.Subsets of a set  of  real  numbers  especially  intervals  (with  notations). Power  set.  Universal  set. Venn diagrams. Union and Intersection of sets.Difference of sets Complement of a set. Properties of Complement. Relations & Functions ·         Ordered pairs.Cartesian product of sets.Number of elements in the Cartesian product of two finite sets. ·         Cartesian product of the set of reals with itself (upto R x R x R). ·         Definition of relation, pictorial diagrams,  domain,  co-domain  and  range  of  a  relation. ·         Function  as  a  special  type  of  relation. ·         Pictorial  representation  of  a  function,  domain,  co-domain  and  range  of  a function. ·         Real  valued functions, domain and range of these functions, constant, identity, polynomial, rational, modulus, signum,  exponential,  logarithmic  and  greatest  integer  functions,  with  their  graphs. ·          Sum, difference, product and quotients of functions. Trigonometric Functions ·         Positive  and  negative  angles.Measuring  angles in  radians and in degrees and conversion from one measure to another. ·         Definition of trigonometric functions with the help of unit circle. ·         Truth of the  identity sin2x + cos2x = 1, for all x. ·         Signs of  trigonometric functions. ·         Domain  and range  of ·         trigonometric functions and their graphs. ·         Expressing sin (x±y) and cos (x±y) in terms of sinx, siny, cosx&cosy and their simple applications. Unit-II: Algebra Principle of Mathematical Induction    ·         Process of the proof by induction, motivating the application of the method by looking at natural numbers  as  the  least  inductive  subset  of  real  numbers.The  principle  of  mathematical  induction and simple applications Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations Need  for  complex  numbers,  especially √−1 ,  to  be  motivated  by  inability  to  solve  some  of  the Quardratic   equations.   Algebraic   properties   of   complex   numbers.Argand   plane   and   polar representation  of  complex  numbers.Statement  of  Fundamental  Theorem of Algebra,  solution  of quadratic  equations  (with  real  coefficients)  in  the  complex  number  system.Square  root  of  a complex number.   Linear Inequalities ·         Linear   inequalities.Algebraic   solutions   of   linear   inequalities   in   one   variable   and   their representation    on    the    number    line.Graphical    solution    of    linear    inequalities    in    two variables.Graphical method of finding a solution of system of linear inequalities in two variables   Permutations and Combinations ·Fundamental  principle  of  counting.Factorialn.  (n!)  Permutations  and  combinations,  derivation of Formulae for nh and their connections, simple applications. Binomial Theorem  History,  statement  and  proof  of  the  binomial  theorem  for  positive  integral  indices.Pascal’s triangle, General and middle term in binomial expansion, simple applications.   Sequence and Series ·         Sequence  and  Series.  Arithmetic  Progression  (A.  P.).  Arithmetic  Mean  (A.M.)  Geometric Progression (G.P.), general term of a G.P., sum of n terms of a G.P., infinite G.P. and its sum, geometric  mean  (G.M.),  relation  between  A.M.  and  G.M Unit-III: Coordinate Geometry Straight Lines   ·         Brief  recall  of  two  dimensional  geometry  from  earlier  classes.  Shifting  of  origin.  Slope  of a  line and angle between two lines. Various forms of equations of a line: parallel to axis, point -slope form, slope-intercept form, two-point form, intercept form and normal form. General equation of a line.Equation of family of lines passing through the point of intersection of two lines.Distance of a point from a line.   Conic Sections  ·         Sections  of  a  cone:  circles,  ellipse,  parabola,  hyperbola,  a  point,  a  straight  line  and  a  pair  of intersecting  lines  as  a  degenerated  case  of  a  conic  section.  Standard  equations  and  simple properties of parabola, ellipse and hyperbola.Standard equation of a circle.   Introduction to Three-dimensional Geometry ·         Coordinate  axes  and  coordinate  planes  in  three  dimensions.  Coordinates  of  a  point.  Distance between two points and section formula. Unit-IV: Calculus Limits and Derivatives     ·         Derivative    introduced    as    rate    of    change    both    as    that    of    distance    function    and geometrically.Intuitive  idea  of  limit.Limits  of  polynomials  and  rational  functions  trigonometric, exponential  and  logarithmic functions.Definition  of  derivative  relate  it to scope  of  tangent  of  the curve, derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions. Derivatives of polynomial and trigonometric functions. Unit-V: Mathematical Reasoning Mathematical Reasoning   ·         Mathematically   acceptable   statements.   Connecting   words/   phrases   –   consolidating   the understanding of “if and only if (necessary and sufficient) condition”, “implies”, “and/or”, “implied by”, “and”, “or”, “there exists” and their use through variety of examples related to real life and Mathematics.  Validating  the  statements  involving  the  connecting  words,  difference  among contradiction, converse and contra positive. Unit-VI: Statistics and Probability Statistics   ·         Measures   of   Dispersion:   Range,   Mean   deviation,   variance   and   standard   deviation   of un grouped/grouped  data.  Analysis  of  frequency  distributions  with  equal  means  but  different variances.   Probability      ·         Random  experiments;  outcomes,  sample  spaces  (set  representation).  Events;  occurrence  of events, ‘not’, ‘and’ and ‘or’ events, exhaustive events, mutually exclusive events, Axiomatic (set theoretic)  probability,  connections with  other  theories  of  earlier  classes. Probability  of  an  event, probability of ‘not’, ‘and’ and ‘or’ events.

### Class 12 Math Units

To learn these chapters in Details you can also refer Class 12 Math Notes.

Also check

CBSE class 12 chemistry Syllabus

CBSE Class 12 Math Syllabus includes lots of different concepts of Math. These topics will helps you to build a good foundation to learn Advanced concepts of Maths.

JEE Advanced Previous Year Question Papers

If you have any Confusion related to CBSE Class 12 Math Syllabus then fell free to ask in the comments section down below.

To watch Free Learning Videos on Math by NK Gupta sir Install the eSaral App.

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2020-2021 – Detailed Syllabus – eSaral
According to the CBSE board class 12 Physics syllabus of session 2020 – 2021 will be the same as session 2019 – 2020 which means there will be no change in the syllabus.

By going through the syllabus students will get the idea about all the units and chapters of class 12 Physics.

 CHAPTER TOPICS Chapter–1 Electric Charges and Fields Electric Charges Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges Forces between multiple charges superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field Electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric fleld. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside). Chapter–2 Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, A dipole and system of charges Equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance Combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates Energy stored in a capacitor. Chapter–3 Current Electricity Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law electrical resistance V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors Series and parallel combinations of resistors Temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell Combination of cells in series and in parallel Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell Chapter–4 Moving Charges and Magnetism Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment) Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field Moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter Chapter–5 Magnetism and Matter Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths, permanent magnets Chapter–6 Electromagnetic Induction Electromagnetic induction Faraday’s laws induced EMF and current Lenz’s Law Eddy currents Self and mutual induction Chapter–7 Alternating Current Alternating currents Peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage Reactance and impedance LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only) LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current AC generator and transformer Chapter–8 Electromagnetic Waves Basic idea of displacement current Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only) Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses Chapter–9 Ray Optics and Optical Instruments Ray Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism Scattering of light – blue colour of sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers Chapter-10 Wave Optics Wave front and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width Coherent sources and sustained interference of light Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum Resolving power of microscope and astronomical telescope Polarisation, Plane polarised light Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids Chapter–11 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Dual nature of radiation Photoelectric effect Hertz and Lenard’s observations Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained) Chapter–12 Atoms Alpha-particle scattering experiment Rutherford’s model of atom Bohr model, Energy levels, hydrogen spectrum Chapter–13 Nuclei Composition and size of nucleus Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion Chapter–14 Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator

## Class 12 Physics Chapters

1. Electric Charge and Fields
2. Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
3. Current Electricity, Chemical Effects of Electric Current,
4. Thermoelectric Effects of Electric Current
5. Heating Effects of Electric Current
6. Moving Charges and Magnetism
7. Magnetism and Matter
8. Electromagnetic Induction
9. Alternating Current
10. Electromagnetic Wave
11. Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
12. Wave Optics
13. Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
14. Atoms
15. Nuclei
16. Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits.

To learn these chapters in Details you can also refer Class 12 Physics Notes.

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus includes lots of different concepts of Physics. These topics will helps you to build a good foundation to learn Advanced concepts of Physics.

JEE Advanced Previous Year Question Papers

If you have any Confusion related to CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus then fell free to ask in the comments section down below.

To watch Free Learning Videos on physics by Saransh Gupta sir Install the eSaral App.
JEE Main 2021 – Exam Pattern, Important Dates, Syllabus

All the aspirants of JEE are informed that JEE main 2021 application form has been released on 16th December 2020. National Testing Agency (NTA) organizes JEE Main Exam 4 times in a year – January to May sessions.

The details given below are for January Session. So, start filling the JEE main 2021 application form for January session.

Important Dates for JEE Main January 2021 Registration

 JEE Main 2020 Important Dates Application form starts from 16th December 2020 Last date to submit Application 16th January 2021 Last date to pay application fees 17thJanuary 2021 Correction in Particulars 19th – 21th January 2021 Admit Card for JEE Main 2021 2nd week of February JEE Main Exam Dates Session 1 – February 23 to 26, 2021 Session 2 – March 15 to 18, 2021 Session 3 – April 27 to 30, 2021 Session 4 – May 24 to 28, 2021 JEE Main Result 2021 (January Attempt) To Be Notified

Application Link: JOINT ENTRANCE EXAMINATION (MAIN) 2021

JEE Main 2021 Exam Pattern

As per the eligibility criteria for, a few changes in the pattern of the question paper(s) and number of question(s) for B.E./B.Tech has been approved by the JEE Apex Board (JAB) for the conduct of JEE (Main)-2021 Examination.

 Paper Subject with Number of Questions Type of Questions TIMING OF THE EXAMINATION(IST) B.tech Mathematics – 30(20+10) Physics – 30(20+10) Chemistry – 30(20+10) 20 Objective Type – Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) & 10 Questions with answer as numerical value, with equal weightage to Mathematics, Physics & Chemistry 1st Shift: 09:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m. 2nd Shift: 03:00 p.m. to 06:00 p.m.

There is no age limit for the candidates to appear in JEE Main 2020 Examination. The candidates who have passed their 12th Examination in 2019, 2020 and appearing in 2021 are eligible to JEE Main Examination 2021.

Those candidates who cleared the class 12 exam in 2018 or before 2018 are not eligible to appear for JEE Main 2021 exam.

Candidates, who desire to appear in January JEE (Main) –2021, may see the detailed Information Bulletin available on NTA Website and apply for the same only online.

Educational Qualification

Candidates appearing 12th or equivalent examination in year 2021 will be also eligible to apply for JEE Main. Where Math, Physics and Chemistry are the essential subjects.

JEE Main Syllabus 2020: Paper -1

Section 1 – PHYSICS

1. Physics and Measurement
2. Kinematics
3. Work, Energy and Power
4. Rotational Motion
5. Gravitation
6. Properties of Solid and Liquids
7. Thermodynamics
8. Kinetic Theory of Gases
9. Oscillations and Waves
10. Electrostatics
11. Current Electricity
12. Magnetic Effects of Currents and Magnetism
13. Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
14. Electromagnetic Waves
15. Optics
16. Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
17. Atoms and Nuclei
18. Electronic Devices
19. Communication Systems and Experimental Skills

Section 2 – CHEMISTRY

1. Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry
2. States of Matter
3. Atomic Structure
4. Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
5. Chemical Thermodynamics
6. Solutions
7. Equilibrium
8. Redox Reactions
9. Electrochemistry
10. Chemical Kinetics
11. Surface Chemistry
12. Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties
13. General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Metals
14. Hydrogen
15. s-Block Elements
16. p-Block Elements
17. d- and f-Block Elements
18. Coordination Compounds
19. Environmental Chemistry
20. Some Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry
21. Hydrocarbons
22. Organic Compounds Containing Halogens
23. Organic Compounds Containing Oxygen
24. Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen
25. Polymers
26. Bio-molecules
27. Chemistry in Everyday Life
28. Principles Related to Practical Chemistry

Section 3 – Mathematics

1. Sets, Relations, and Functions
2. Complex Numbers and Quadratic Equations
3. Matrices and Determinants
4. Permutations and Combinations
5. Mathematical Induction
6. Binomial Theorem and its Simple Applications
7. Sequences and Series
8. Limits Continuity and Differentiation
9. Integral Calculus
10. Differential Equations
11. Coordinate Geometry
12. Three-dimensional Geometry
13. Vector Algebra
14. Statistics and Probability
15. Trigonometry
16. Mathematical Reasoning

JEE Main Syllabus 2020: Paper -2

Section 1 – Math & Aptitude

1. Awareness of Places, persons, buildings and materials
2. Texture and Objects related to Architecture
3. Visualizing 3D objects from 2D drawings
4. Visualizing Different sides of 3D Objects
5. Mental Ability
6. Analytical Reasoning
7. Colour Texture
8. Contrast and Harmony
9. Building Forms and Elements
10. 3D- Perception and Appreciation of scale and proportion of objects.

Section 2 – Drawing Test

1. Drawing and Designing of geometrical or abstract shapes & patterns in pencil
2. Transformation of forms both 2D and 3D union
3. Elevation and 3D views of objects rotation
4. Development of Surfaces and Volumes
5. Generation of Plan
6. Creating 2D & 3D compositions using given shapes and forms
7. Sketching of activities from memory of urban scenes

Now, when you have the complete list of topics included in the JEE Mains Syllabus analyze it properly make your preparation flawless, do not skip any of the topics, set goals and accomplish them to get the desired results. Not only this, but analyzing previous year question papers would also be highly beneficial from the point of view of JEE Mains Exam.

Please find the links below to get the detailed syllabus of all the three subjects:

JEE Main Physics Syllabus

JEE Main Chemistry Syllabus

JEE Main Math Syllabus

For all other details regarding JEE Mains Exam please stay tuned with eSaral.

Fill up JEE Main 2021 Application form soon for the January Attempt as the dates are running out!!!

JEE Advanced 2021 Exam Syllabus

Please find the links below to get the detailed syllabus of all the three subjects:

JEE Advanced  Physics Syllabus

JEE Advanced Chemistry Syllabus

JEE Advanced Math Syllabus

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JEE Main 2020 New Dates Announced | Check Here for Details

The exam dates for NTA JEE Main 2020 announced by the Union Minister of Human Resource Development Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank on tuesday (5th May’20). The JEE (Main) 2020 exam was earlier re-scheduled by the ministry, due to the nationwide lockdown in the wake of coronavirus outbreak. The new date for the JEE (Main) 2020 exams was since then awaited.

According to the announcement, Union Minister of Human Resource Development Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank said the examination process for the JEE (Main) 2020 will begin from July this year, while the session will begin by August. The JEE Main exam will be conducted from July 18 to July 23, 2020, while the JEE Advanced in August, Ramesh Pokhriyal Nishank said. Through JEE Main entrance exam, students will be able to get admission to BE/B.tech, B.Plan, and B.Arch degree courses at the various IITs (Indian Institute of Information Technology), NITs (National Institute of Technology) and other Centrally Funded Technical Institutions (CFTIs) across India.

### JEE Main 2020 Exam Pattern

As per the eligibility criteria for, a few changes in the pattern of the question paper(s) and number of question(s) for B.E./B.Tech has been approved by the JEE Apex Board (JAB) for the conduct of JEE (Main)-2020 Examination.
 Paper Subject with Number of Questions Type of Questions TIMING OF THE EXAMINATION(IST) B.tech Mathematics – 25(20+5) Physics – 25(20+5) Chemistry – 25(20+5) 20 Objective Type – Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) & 5 Questions with answer as numerical value, with equal weightage to Mathematics, Physics & Chemistry 1st Shift: 09:30 a.m. to 12:30 p.m. 2nd Shift: 02:30 p.m. to 05:30 p.m.
There is no age limit for the candidates to appear in JEE Main 2020 Examination. The candidates who have passed their 12th Examination in 2018, 2019 and appearing in 2020 are eligible to JEE Main Examination 2020. Those candidates who cleared the class 12 exam in 2017 or before 2017 are not eligible to appear for JEE Main 2020 exam.

### Quick Revision Videos

#### 👉Physics Revision Series by Saransh Gupta Sir (AIR-41)

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2019-20 | Download Detailed Syllabus
Here in this article the students can find the detailed CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2019-20. Each chapter is described topic wise. Students should follow this and prepare according to it for the exams.
 CHAPTER TOPICS Chapter–1 Electric Charges and Fields Electric Charges Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges Forces between multiple charges superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field Electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric fleld. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside). Chapter–2 Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, A dipole and system of charges Equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance Combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates Energy stored in a capacitor. Chapter–3 Current Electricity Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law electrical resistance V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors Series and parallel combinations of resistors Temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell Combination of cells in series and in parallel Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell Chapter–4 Moving Charges and Magnetism Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment) Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field Moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter Chapter–5 Magnetism and Matter Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths, permanent magnets Chapter–6 Electromagnetic Induction Electromagnetic induction Faraday’s laws induced EMF and current Lenz’s Law Eddy currents Self and mutual induction Chapter–7 Alternating Current Alternating currents Peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage Reactance and impedance LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only) LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current AC generator and transformer Chapter–8 Electromagnetic Waves Basic idea of displacement current Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only) Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses Chapter–9 Ray Optics and Optical Instruments Ray Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibers, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism Scattering of light – blue colour of sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers Chapter-10 Wave Optics Wave front and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width Coherent sources and sustained interference of light Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum Resolving power of microscope and astronomical telescope Polarisation, Plane polarised light Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids Chapter–11 Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Dual nature of radiation Photoelectric effect Hertz and Lenard’s observations Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained) Chapter–12 Atoms Alpha-particle scattering experiment Rutherford’s model of atom Bohr model, Energy levels, hydrogen spectrum Chapter–13 Nuclei Composition and size of nucleus Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion Chapter–14 Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator
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Class 12 PHYSICS Complete Notes

Class 12 CHEMISTRY Complete Notes

Class 12 MATHEMATICS Complete Notes

Class 12 CBSE Syllabus 2019-20 for All Subjects | CBSE Exam Pattern | Chapter-wise Marks Distribution
Every year CBSE conducts board examination for class 10th and 12th. Class 12 CBSE Syllabus 2019-20 is released by Central Board of Secondary Education. But Class 12th Exam Pattern has been changed and the new pattern and marking scheme is introduced for the session 2019-20. So in this article get to know the changes for CBSE CLASS 12TH Exam Pattern with the marking scheme and syllabus.

### CBSE Exam Pattern of Class 12

 Internal Assessment Earlier the internal assessment was not considered for all subjects. But in March 2020 exams, it is mandatory for all the subjects. From now 25% marks are allotted as internal assessments [20 out of 100]. So from March 2020 exams, the final exams will be conducted for 80 marks. However, some fine arts and science stream subjects will follow the same ratio of 70-30. Multiple Choice/Objective Type Questions Recently MCQs or objective type questions are included in all the exams. CBSE will ask 25% of the questions as MCQs. So it is clear that at least 20 marks in each exam are covered by these objective type questions. Rest marks will be covered by the subjective and theory questions. Choice in Questions As per the trend of 2019, CBSE will give option for choice to the students in 33% of the questions.
So, here is the Class 12 CBSE Syllabus 2019-20 for All Subjects with Unit wise weightage:

### CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2020 with Unit Wise Weightage

 Marking Unit–I Electrostatics 16 Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Unit-II Current Electricity Chapter–3: Current Electricity Unit-III Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism 17 Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter Unit-IV Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction Chapter–7: Alternating Current Unit–V Electromagnetic Waves 18 Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves Unit–VI Optics Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments Chapter–10: Wave Optics Unit–VII Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter 12 Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Unit–VIII Atoms and Nuclei Chapter–12: Atoms Chapter–13: Nuclei Unit–IX Electronic Devices 7 Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits TOTAL MARKS 70
CLICK HERE FOR THE DETAILED SYLLABUS OF PHYSICS CLASS 12

### CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2020 with Unit Wise Weightage

 Unit No. Title Marks Unit I Solutions 23 Unit II Electrochemistry Unit III Chemical Kinetics Unit IV Surface Chemistry Unit V General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements 19 Unit VI p -Block Elements Unit VI d -and f -Block Elements Unit VII Coordination Compounds Unit VIII Haloalkanes and Haloarenes 28 Unit IX Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Unit X Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Unit XI Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen Unit XII Biomolecules Unit XIII Polymers Unit XIV Chemistry in Everyday Life Total 70

### CBSE Class 12 Mathematics Syllabus 2020 with Unit Wise Weightage

 No. Units Marks I. Relations and Functions 08 II. Algebra 10 III. Calculus 35 IV. Vectors and Three – Dimensional Geometry 14 V. Linear Programming 05 VI. Probability 08 Total 80 Internal Assessment 20
CLICK HERE FOR THE DETAILED SYLLABUS OF MATHEMATICS CLASS 12

### CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2020 with Unit Wise Weightage

 Unit Title Marks VI Reproduction 14 VII Genetics and Evolution 18 VIII Biology and Human Welfare 14 IX Biotechnology and its Applications 10 X Ecology and Environment 14 Total 70
CLICK HERE FOR THE DETAILED SYLLABUS OF BIOLOGY CLASS 12

### CBSE Class 12 English Syllabus 2020 with Unit Wise Weightage

 Typology Testing Competencies Objective Type Question including MCQs(1 mark each) Short Answer Questio ns (2 marks each) Short Answer Question (4 marks each) Long Answer Question 120–150 words (6 marks each) Very Long Answer Question 150–200 words (HOTS) (10 marks each) Total marks Comprehension Conceptual understanding, decoding, Analyzing, inferring, interpreting, appreciating, literary, conventions and vocabulary, summarizing and using appropriate format/s MCQ = 5 Objective Type Questions = 7 – 2 – – 20 Writing Skills Reasoning, appropriacy of style and tone, using appropriate format and fluency, inference, analysis, evaluation and creativity – – 1 1 2 30 Literature Textbooks  and Supplementary Reading Text Recalling, reasoning, appreciating literary convention, inference, analysis, creativity with fluency 8 Objective Type Questions (4 from1 prose and 4 from 1 poetry extract) 5 – 2 – 30 TOTAL 1×20=20 2×5=10 4×3=12 6×3=18 10×2=20 80 Assessment                      of Listening                      and Speaking Skills – – – – – 20 GRAND TOTAL – – – – – 100

### CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Syllabus 2020

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CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Mathematics

## Here is the detailed syllabus of Class 12 Mathematics for CBSE Boards:

Get the detailed CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Mathematics. This syllabus contains Unit and Chapterwise distribution for Mathematics. You can also get Syllabus of Physics and Chemistry.

### Unit-I : Relations and Functions

#### 1. Relations and Functions

Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations.

#### 2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions

Definition, range, domain, principal value branch. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.

### Unit-II : Algebra

#### 1.Matrices

Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar. Simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Non- commutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2).Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).

#### 2. Determinants

Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, co-factors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.

### Unit-III : Calculus

#### 1. Continuity and Differentiability

Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit functions. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions. Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretation.

#### 2. Applications of Derivatives

Applications of derivatives: rate of change of bodies, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents and normals, use of derivatives in approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations).

#### 3. Integrals

Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on them. $$\int {{{dx} \over {{x^2} \pm {a^2}}}} ,\,\,\int {{{dx} \over {\sqrt {{x^2} \pm {a^2}} }},\,\int {{{dx} \over {{a^2} – {x^2}}}} } ,$$$$\int {{{dx} \over {a{x^2} + bx + c}}} ,\,\,\int {{{dx} \over {\sqrt {a{x^2} + bx + c} }}}$$ $$\int {{{px + q} \over {a{x^2} + bx + c}}dx,\,\,} \int {{{px + q} \over {\sqrt {a{x^2} + bx + c} }}dx,\,\,\int {\sqrt {{a^2} \pm {x^2}} \,dx,\,\,} \,\int {\sqrt {{x^2} – {a^2}} \,dx} }$$ $$\int {\sqrt {a{x^2} + bx + c} } \,\,dx,\,\int {(px + q)\,\sqrt {a{x^2} + bx + c} \,\,} dx$$ Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.

#### 4. Applications of the Integrals

Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, circles/ parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), Area between any of the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).

#### 5. Differential Equations

Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. formation of differential equation whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type: $${{dy} \over {dx}} + py = q$$ , where p and q are functions of x or constants. $${{dx} \over {dy}} + px = q$$, where p and q are functions of y or constants

### Unit-IV : Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry

#### 1. Vectors

Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors, scalar triple product of vectors.

#### 2. Three – dimensional Geometry

Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane.

### Unit-V: Linear Programming

#### 1. Linear Programming

Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions (bounded or unbounded), feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).

### Unit-VI : Probability

#### 1. Probability

Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability, independent events, total probability, Bayes’ theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of random variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.
CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Chemistry 2020-21 – Detailed Syllabus

## Here is the detailed syllabus of Class 12 Chemistry for CBSE Boards:

Get the detailed CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Chemistry. This syllabus contains Units and Chapter wise distribution for Chemistry.

You can also get Syllabus of Physics and Math.

## All Units of Chemistry class 12

### Unit I: Solid State

Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties. Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p type semiconductors.

### Unit II: Solutions

Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties – relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Van’t Hoff factor.

### Unit III: Electrochemistry

Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.

### Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.

### Unit V: Surface Chemistry

Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogenous and heterogenous activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion – types of emulsions.

### Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction – electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron

### Unit VII: Some p -Block Elements

Group -15 Elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen preparation properties and uses; compounds of Nitrogen, preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid, Oxides of Nitrogen(Structure only) ; Phosphorus – allotropic forms, compounds of Phosphorus: Preparation and Properties of Phosphine, Halides and Oxoacids (elementary idea only).

Group 16 Elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of Oxides, Ozone, Sulphur -allotropic forms; compounds of Sulphur: Preparation Properties and uses of Sulphur-dioxide, Sulphuric Acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only).

Group 17 Elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

Group 18 Elements:

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

### Unit VIII: “d” and “f” Block Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.

Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.

Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.

### Unit IX: Coordination Compounds

Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner’s theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereoisomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system).

### Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation.

Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only).

Uses and environmental effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.

### Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.

Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.

Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

### Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.

Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

### Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.

Cyanides and Isocyanides – will be mentioned at relevant places in text.

Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

### Unit XIV: Biomolecules

Carbohydrates – Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); Importance of carbohydrates.

Proteins -Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins – primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones – Elementary idea excluding structure.

Vitamins – Classification and functions.

Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.

### Unit XV: Polymers

Classification – natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization, some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

### Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday life

Chemicals in medicines – analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.

Chemicals in food – preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants. Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

CBSE Class 12 Physics Detailed Syllabus

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CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Physics

## Here is the detailed syllabus of Class 12 Physics for CBSE Boards:

Get the detailed CBSE Syllabus for Class 12 Physics. This syllabus contains Unit and Chapterwise distribution for Physics. You can also get Syllabus of Chemistry and Math.

### Unit I : Electrostatics

#### Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields

Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

#### Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

### Unit II : Current Electricity

#### Chapter–3: Current Electricity

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

### Unit III : Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism

#### Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. 12

#### Chapter–5 : Magnetism and Matter

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis, torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro – magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths, permanent magnets.

### Unit IV : Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

#### Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.

#### Chapter–7: Alternating Current

Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current. AC generator and transformer.

### Unit V : Electromagnetic waves

#### Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves

Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only). Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

### Unit VI : Optics

#### Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Ray Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light – blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

#### Chapter–10: Wave Optics

Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum, resolving power of microscope and astronomical telescope, polarisation, plane polarised light, Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

### Unit VII : Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

#### Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation, Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

### Unit VIII : Atoms and Nuclei

#### Chapter–12: Atoms

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

#### Chapter–13: Nuclei

Composition and size of nucleus, Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

### Unit IX : Electronic Devices

#### Chapter–14 : Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode – I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration), basic idea of analog and digital signals, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).

### Unit X : Communication Systems

#### Chapter–15: Communication Systems

Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite communication. Need for modulation, amplitude modulation.