Coulomb’s law of Magnetism || Magnetism and Matter Class 12, JEE & NEET

Magnetism and Matter Class 12 Notes will help you in your Exam Preparation and will also help in scoring good! The property of any object by virtue of which it can attract a piece of iron or steel is called Magnetism. Here we will study about the Coulomb’s Law in Magnetism, Magnetic Flux Density, and Pole Strength.

  1. Coulomb’s Law in Magnetism
  2. Magnetic Flux Density
  3. Pole Strength

Coulomb’s Law in Magnetism

If two magnetic poles of strengths $${{m_1}}$$ and $${{m_2}}$$ are kept at a distance r apart then force of attraction or repulsion between the two poles is directly proportional to the product of their pole strengths and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them

$$F \propto {{{m_1}{m_2}} \over {{r^2}}}\quad or\,\,F = {{{\mu _0}} \over {4\pi }}{{{m_1}{m_2}} \over {{r^2}}}$$

Where $\frac{\mu_{0}}{4 \pi}=10^{-7} Wb A ^{-1} m ^{-1}=10^{-7}$ henry/m where $\mu_{0}$ is permeability of free space.

Magnetic Flux Density

The force experienced by a unit north pole when placed in a magnetic field is called magnetic flux density or field intensity at that point

$\overrightarrow{ B }=\frac{\overrightarrow{ F }}{ m }=\frac{\mu_{0}}{4 \pi} \frac{ m }{ r ^{2}} \hat{ r }$

This is the magnetic field produced by a pole of strength m at distance r.

Pole Strength

In relation $F=\frac{\mu_{0}}{4 \pi} \frac{m_{1} m_{2}}{r^{2}}$

If $m _{1}= m _{2}= m , r =1 m$ and $F =10^{-7} N$

Then $10^{-7}=10^{-7} \times \frac{ m \times m }{1^{2}}$ or $m^{2}=1$ or $m=\pm 1$ ampere metre (A-m)

The strength of a magnetic pole is said to be one ampere meter if it repels an equal and similar pole with a force of $10^{-7}$ N when placed in vacuum (or air) at a distance of one meter from it.

The pole strength of north pole is defined as the force experienced by the pole when kept in unit magnetic field.

$m =\frac{\overrightarrow{ F }}{\overrightarrow{ B }}$

  1. Pole strength is a scalar quantity with dimension $M^{0} L^{1} T^{0} A^{1}$

(2) The unit is newton/Tesla or ampere meter.

(3) The pole strength depends on nature of material of magnet, state of magnetisation (with an upper limit called saturation) and area of cross-section.

(4) The north pole experiences a force in the direction of magnetic field while south pole experiences force opposite to field.

 

 

 

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ATOMIC THEORY OF MAGNETISM || Magnetism and Matter Class 12, JEE & NEET

Magnetism and Matter Class 12 Notes will help you in your Exam Preparation and will also help in scoring good! The property of any object by virtue of which it can attract a piece of iron or steel is called magnetism. Here will study about the Atomic Theory of Magnetism.

Atomic Theory of Magnetism :

(1) Each atom behaves like a complete magnet having a north and south pole of equal strength. The electrons revolving around the nucleus in an atom are equivalent to small current loops which behaves as magnetic dipole.

(2) In unmagnetized magnetic substance these atomic magnets (represented by arrows) are randomly oriented and form closed chains. The atomic magnets cancel the effect of each other and thus resultant magnetism is zero.

  1. In magnetised substance all the atomic magnets are aligned in same direction and thus resultant magnetism is non-zero.

The atomic theory explains the following facts in magnetism.

(1) Non existence of monopoles. The magnetic poles always exist in pairs and are of equal strength.

(2) When a magnet breaks than each part behaves like a complete magnet.

(3) Magnetisation of an electromagnet can be explained as alignment of atomic magnets in direction of magnetic field.

(4) This explains the phenomenon of saturation magnetization i.e. acquired magnetism remains constant even on increasing the external magnetizing field.

 

 

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Properties of Bar Magnet || Magnetism and Matter Class 12, JEE & NEET

Playing with magnets is one of the first moments of science most children discover. That’s because magnets are easy to use, safe, and fun. They’re also quite surprising. Remember when you first discovered that two magnets could snap together and stick like glue? Remember the force when you held two magnets close and felt them either attract (pull toward one another) or repel (push away)? Here we will study about the Bar Magnet and Properties of Bar Magnet!

A bar magnet is a rectangular piece of the object. It is made up of iron, steel or any other ferromagnetic substance or ferromagnetic composite, having permanent Magnetic Properties. The magnet has two poles: a north and a south pole. When you suspend it freely, the magnet aligns itself so that the north pole points towards the magnetic north pole of the earth.

Properties of Bar Magnet :

  1. Attractive Property and Poles : When a magnet is dipped into iron fillings it is found that the concentration of iron filings, i.e., attracting power of the magnet is maximum at two points near the ends and minimum at the center. The places in a magnet where its attracting power is maximum are called poles while the place of minimum attracting power is called the neutral region.

                                 

(2) Directive Property and N-S Poles : When magnet is suspended its length becomes parallel to N-S direction. The pole pointing north is called the north pole while the other pointing south is called the south pole.

(3) Magnetic Axis and Magnetic Meridian : The line joining the two poles of a magnet is called magnetic axis and the vertical plane passing through the axis of a freely suspended or pivoted magnet is called magnetic meridian.

                                   

(4) Magnetic Length  : The distance between two poles along the axis of a magnet is called its effective or magnetic length. As poles are not exactly at the ends, the effective length is lesser then the actual length of the magnet.

(5) Poles Exist in Paris : In a magnet the two poles are found to be equal in strength and opposite in nature. If a magnet is broken into number of pieces, each piece becomes a magnet with two equal and opposite poles. This shows that monopoles do not exist.

                                     

(6) Consequent-poles and No-pole : Monopoles do not exist in a magnet but there are two poles of equal strength and opposite nature :

                                         

(a) There can be magnets with no poles, e.g., a magnetised ring called toroid or solenoid of infinite length has properties of a magnet but no poles.

(b) There can be magnets with two similar poles (or with three poles), e.g., due to faulty magnetisation of a bar, temporarily identical poles at the two ends with an opposite pole of double strength at the centre of bar (called consequent pole) are developed.

(7) Repulsion is a Sure Test of Polarity : A pole of a magnet attracts the opposite pole while repels similar pole. A sure test of polarity is repulsion and not attraction, as attraction can take place between opposite poles or a pole and a piece of unmagnetised magnetic material due to ‘induction effect’.

(8) Magnetic Induction : A magnet attracts certain other substances through the phenomenon of magnetic induction i.e., by inducing opposite pole in a magnetic material on the side facing it as shown in fig.

                                     

(9) Magnetic and Non-magnetic Materials : The substances such as steel, iron, cobalt and nickel, etc., which are attracted by a magnet are called magnetic while substances such as copper, aluminium stainless steel, wood, glass and plastic, etc. which are not attracted by the magnet are usually called non-magnetic.

(10) Permanent and Temporary Magnets : If a magnet retains its attracing power for a long time it is said to be permanent, otherwise temporary. Permanent magnets are made of steel, Alnico, Alcomax or Ticonal while temporary of soft iron, mumetal or stalloy.

(11) Demagnetisation : A magnet gets demagnetised, i.e., loses its power of attraction if it is heated, hammered or ac is passed through a wire wound over it.

(12) Magnetic Keepers : A magnet tends to become weaker with age owing to self-demagnetisation due to poles at the ends which tends to neutralise each other. However, by using pieces of soft iron called keepers, the poles at the ends are neutralised and consequently the demagnetising effect disappears and the magnet can retain its magnetism for a longer period.

                                                   

 

 

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Construction and Working Principle of Cyclotron Class 12 Physics

We will study here about the Construction and Working Principle of Cyclotron Class 12

  1. Working Principle of Cyclotron
  2. Construction of Cyclotron

Cyclotron Introduction

A cyclotron is used for accelerating positive ions, so that they acquire energy large enough to carry out nuclear reactions.

Cyclotron was designed by Lawrence and Livingstone in 1931.

In a cyclotron, the positive ions cross again and again the same alternating (radio frequency) electric field.

And gain the energy each time = q V.

q = charge and $V=p o t^{n}$ . difference in betn dees.

It is achieved by making them to move along spiral path under the action of a strong magnetic field.

Working Principle of Cyclotron :

A positive ion can acquire sufficiently large energy with a comparatively smaller alternating potential difference by making them to cross the same electric field again and again by making use of a strong magnetic field.

 

Construction of Cyclotron :

It consists of two D-shaped hollow semicircular metal chambers $\mathrm{D}_{1}$ and $\mathrm{D}_{2}$, called dees.

The two dees are placed horizontally with a small gap separating them.

The dees are connected to the source of high frequency electric field.

The dees are enclosed in a metal box containing a gas at a low pressure of the order of

10–3 mm mercury.

The whole apparatus is placed between the two poles of a strong electromagnet NS as shown in fig. The magnetic field acts perpendicular to the plane of the dees.

The positive ions are produced in the gap between the two dees by the ionisation of the gas.

To produce proton, hydrogen gas is used; while for producing $\alpha$ -particles, helium gas is used. Theory : Consider that a positive ion is produced at the centre of the gap at the time, when the dee $D_{1}$ is at positive potential and the dee $D_{2}$, is at a negative potential. The positive ion will move from dee $D_{1}$ to dee $D_{2}$ The force on the positive ion due to magnetic field provides the centripetal force to the positive ion and it is deflected along a circular path because magnetic field is normal to the motion. Let strength of the magnetic field $=\mathrm{B}$ mass of ion $=\mathrm{m}, \quad$ velocity of ion $=\mathrm{v} \quad$ and $\quad$ charge of the positive ion $=\mathrm{q}$ and the radius of the semi-circular path $=\mathrm{r}$

then $\left.\quad \mathrm{Bqv}=\frac{\mathrm{mv}^{2}}{\mathrm{r}} \quad \text { [inside the dee } \mathrm{D}_{2}\right]$

Thus, $r=\frac{m v}{B q}$

After moving along the semi-circular path inside the dee $D_{2},$ the positive ion reaches the gap between the dees.

At this stage, the polarity of the dees just reverses due to alternating “electric field” i.e. dee $D_{1}$, becomes negative and dee $\mathrm{D}_{2}$ becomes positive.The positive ion again gains the energy, as it is attracted by the dee $D_{1}$, After moving along the semi-circular path inside the dee $D_{1}$, the positive ion again reaches the gap and it gains the energy. ( $=\mathrm{q} \mathrm{V}$ ) This process repeats itself because, the positive ion spends the same time inside a dee irrespective of its velocity or the radius of the circular path.

The time spent inside a dee to cover semi-circular path,

is $\quad \mathrm{t}=\frac{\text { length of the semi circular path }}{\text { velocity }}=\frac{\pi \mathrm{r}}{\mathrm{v}}$

Or $\mathrm{t}=\frac{\pi \mathrm{m}}{\mathrm{Bq}} \quad\left[\frac{\mathrm{r}}{\mathrm{v}}=\frac{\mathrm{m}}{\mathrm{Bq}}\right]$

As positive ion gains kinetic energy its velocity increases, due to increasing velocity, decrease in time spent inside a dee of positive ions is exactly compensated by the increase in length of the semi circular path (r $\propto$ v).

Due to this condition, the positive ion always crosses the alternating electric field across the gap in correct phase.

 

              Also Read:

 

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Force Between Two Parallel Current Carrying Conductors || Class 12 Physics Notes

It is experimentally established fact that two current carrying conductors attract each other when the current is in same direction and repel each other when the current are in opposite direction. Here we will study about Force Between Two Parallel Current Carrying Conductors as wire:

Force Between parallel current carrying wires

Consider two long wires $W_{1}$ and $W_{2}$ kept parallel to each other and carrying currents $I_{1}$ and $\mathrm{I}_{2}$ respectively in the same direction. The separation between the wires is d. Consider a small element d\ell of the wire $WA_{2}$ The magnetic field at d\ell due to the wire $W_{1}$ is

$B_{1}=\frac{\mu_{0} I_{1}}{2 \pi d}$ …….(i)

The field due to the portions of the wire $W_{2},$ above and below $d \ell,$ is zero. Thus, eq” (i) gives

the net field at $\mathrm{d} \ell$ . The direction of this field is perpendicular to the plane of the diagram and going into it. The magnetic force at the element $d \ell$ due to wire $w_{1}$ is.

The vector product $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{d}} \ell \times \overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}}$ has a direction towards the wire $\mathrm{W}_{1} .$ Thus, the length $\mathrm{d} \ell$ of wire $\mathrm{W}_{2}$ is attracted towards the wire $\mathrm{W}_{1}$. The force per unit length of the wire $\mathrm{W}_{2}$ due to the wire $W_{1}$ is

The vector product $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{d}} \ell \times \overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}}$ has a direction towards the wire $W_{1}$ . Thus, the length $\mathrm{d} \ell$ of wire $\mathrm{W}_{2}$ is attracted towards the wire $\mathrm{W}_{1}$. The force per unit length of the wire $\mathrm{W}_{2}$ due to the wire $W_{1}$ is

If we take an element $\mathrm{d} \ell$ in the wire $\mathrm{W}_{1}$ and calculate the magnetic force per unit length on wire $W_{1}$ due to $\mathrm{W}_{2},$ it is again given by $\operatorname{eq}^{n}(i i)$

If the parallel wires currents in opposite directions, the wires repel each other.

The wires attract each other if current in the wires are flowing in the same direction.

And they repel each other if the currents are in opposite directions.

Experimental Demonstration

Definition of Ampere

$\because \quad \mathrm{F}=\frac{\mu_{0}}{2 \pi} \frac{\mathrm{I}_{1} \mathrm{I}_{2}}{\mathrm{r}} \mathrm{N} / \mathrm{m}$

When $\mathrm{I}_{1}=\mathrm{I}_{2}=1$ ampere and $\mathrm{r}=1 \mathrm{m},$ then $\quad \mathrm{F}=\frac{\mu_{0}}{2 \pi}=\frac{4 \pi \times 10^{-7}}{2 \pi} \mathrm{N} / \mathrm{m}=2 \times 10^{-7} \mathrm{N} / \mathrm{m}$ This leads to the following definition of ampere.

One ampere is that current which, if passed in each of two parallel conductors of infinite length and one metre apart in vacuum causes each conductor to experience a force of $2 \times 10^{-7}$ newton per metre of length of conductor.

Dimensional of formula of $\mu_{0}$

$\because \quad \mathrm{F}=\frac{\mu_{0}}{2 \pi} \frac{\mathrm{I}_{1} \mathrm{I}_{2}}{\mathrm{r}} \quad$ so

$\left[\mu_{0}\right]=\frac{[\mathrm{F}][\mathrm{r}]}{\left[\mathrm{I}_{1} \mathrm{I}_{2}\right]}=\frac{\left[\mathrm{ML}^{0} \mathrm{T}^{-2}\right][\mathrm{L}]}{\left[\mathrm{I}^{2}\right]}=\left[\mathrm{MLT}^{-2} \mathrm{I}^{-2}\right]$

 

Also Read:

Biot Savart’s Law

 

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Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field | Class 12 Physics Notes
  1. Force on a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field
  2. Difference in Force on a Charged Particle by Magnetic Field and Electric Field

When a charged particle travels through a magnetic field, it experiences a force unlike any other that we’re familiar with in everyday life. To illustrate the point, envision yourself walking down the sidewalk, when all of a sudden, a strong gust of wind hits you from the side. Now imagine that instead of moving sideways, you shoot straight up to the sky. Here we will study about the Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field.

Force on a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field

Force experienced by a current element Id $\vec{\ell}$ in magnetic field $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}}$ is given by

Now if the current element $\mathrm{Id} \vec{\ell}$ is due to the motion of charge particles, each particle having a charge q moving with velocity $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{v}}$ through a cross-section S,

$\mathrm{Id} \vec{\ell}=\mathrm{n} \mathrm{S} \mathrm{q} \quad \overrightarrow{\mathrm{v}} \cdot \mathrm{d} \ell=\mathrm{n} \mathrm{d} \tau \mathrm{q} \overrightarrow{\mathrm{v}}$ [with volume $\mathrm{d} \tau=\mathrm{S} \mathrm{d} \ell]$

$n \mathrm{d} \tau=$ the total number of charged particles in volume d\tau $(n=$ number of charged particles per unit volume),

force on a charged particle From this it is clear that : $\left.\vec{F}=\frac{1}{n} \frac{d \vec{F}}{d \tau}=q \quad \vec{v} \times \vec{B}\right)$

(a) The force $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{F}}$ is always perpendicular to both the velocity $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{v}}$ and the field $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}}$.

 

(b) A charged particle at rest in a steady magnetic field does not experience any force.

If the charged particle is at rest then $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{v}}=0,$ so $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{v}} \times \overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}}=0$

 

(c) A moving charged particle does not experience any force in a magnetic field if its motion is parallel or antiparallel to the field.

i.e., if $\quad \theta=0^{\circ}$ or $180^{\circ}$

 

(d) If the particle is moving perpendicular to the field.

In this situation all the three vectors $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{F}}, \overrightarrow{\mathrm{v}}$ and $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}}$ are mutually perpendicular to each other. Then $\sin \theta=\max =1,$ i.e., $\theta=90^{\circ}$

The force will be maximum $F_{\max }=q \vee B$

 

(e) Work done by force due to magnetic field in motion of a charged particle is always zero.

When a charged particle move in a magnetic field, then force acts on it is always perpendicular to displacement,

so the work done, $\left.\quad \mathrm{W}=\int \overrightarrow{\mathrm{F}} \cdot \overrightarrow{\mathrm{ds}}=\int \mathrm{F} d \mathrm{s} \cos 90^{\circ}=0 \quad \text { (as } \theta=90^{\circ}\right)$

And as by work-energy theorem $\mathrm{W}=\Delta \mathrm{KE},$ the kinetic energy $\left(=\frac{1}{2} \mathrm{mv}^{2}\right)$, remains unchanged and hence speed of charged particle v remains constant.

However, in this situation the force changes the direction of motion, so the direction of velocity of $\vec{v}$ the charged particle changes continuously.

 

(f) For motion of charged particle in a magnetic field $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{F}}=\mathrm{q}(\overrightarrow{\mathrm{v}} \times \overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}})$

 

So magnetic induction $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}}$ can be defined as a vector having the direction in which a moving charged particle does not experience any force in the field and magnitude equal to the ratio of the magnitude of maximum force to the product of magnitude of charge with velocity

Difference in Force on a Charged Particle by Magnetic Field and Electric Field

 

 

Also Read:

Biot Savart’s Law

 

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Motion of Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field | Moving Charges and Magnetism Class 12, JEE & NEET

When a charged particle moves along a magnetic field line into a region where the field becomes stronger, the particle experiences a force that reduces the component of velocity parallel to the field. This force slows the motion along the field line and here reverses it, forming a Magnetic Mirror. Motion of a charged particle in magnetic field is characterized by the change in the direction of motion. It is expected also as magnetic field is capable of only changing direction of motion. In order to keep the context of study simplified, we assume magnetic field to be uniform. This assumption greatly simplifies the description and lets us easily visualize the motion of a charged particle in magnetic field.

Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Field

Motion of a charged particle when it is moving collinear with the field magnetic field is not affected by the field (i.e. if motion is just along or opposite to magnetic field) ( : $: \quad F=0$ ) Only the following two cases are possible:

 

Case I: When the charged particle is moving perpendicular to the field The angle between $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}}$ and $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{v}}$ is $\theta=90^{\circ}$

So the force will be maximum ( $=$ qvB ) and always perpendicular to motion (and also field);

Hence the charged particle will move along a circular path (with its plane perpendicular to the field).

Centripetal force is provided by the force qvB,

n case of circular motion of a charged particle in a steady magnetic field :

i.e., with increase in speed or kinetic energy, the radius of the orbit increases. For uniform circular motion $v=\omega r$

Angular frequency of circular motion, called cyclotron or gyro-frequency. $\omega=\frac{\mathrm{v}}{\mathrm{r}}=\frac{\mathrm{qB}}{\mathrm{m}}$

and the time period, $\quad \mathrm{T}=\frac{2 \pi}{\omega}=2 \pi \frac{\mathrm{m}}{\mathrm{qB}}$

i.e., time period (or frequency) is independent of speed of particle and radius of the orbit.

Time period depends only on the field B and the nature of the particle,

i.e., specific charge (q/m) of the particle.

This principle has been used in a large number of devices such as cyclotron (a particle accelerator), bubble-chamber (a particle detector) or mass-spectrometer etc.

motion of charged particle in electric and magnetic field

 

case II : The charged particle is moving at an angle $\theta$ to the field :

$\left(\theta \neq 0^{\circ}, 90^{\circ} \text { or } 180^{\circ}\right)$

Resolving the velocity of the particle along and perpendicular to the field.

The particle moves with constant velocity v cos $\theta$ along the field ($\because$ no force acts on a charged particle when it moves parallel to the field).

And at the same time it is also moving with velocity $v$ sin $\theta$ perpendicular to the field due to which it will describe a circle (in a plane perpendicular to the field)

So the resultant path will be a helix with its axis parallel to the field $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}}$ as shown in fig. The pitch p of the helix $=$ linear distance travelled in one rotation

$p=T(v \cos \theta)=\frac{2 \pi m}{q B}(v \cos \theta)$

 

Also Read:

Biot Savart’s Law

 

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Flemings Left Hand Rule Class 12 Physics

Flemings Left Hand Rule Class 12 states that if we stretch the thumb, the forefinger and the middle finger of our left hand such that they are mutually perpendicular to each other.
If the forefinger gives the direction of current and middle finger points in the direction of magnetic field then the thumb points towards the direction of the force or motion of the conductor.

Then if the fore-finger points in the direction of field $(\overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}})$, the central finger in the direction of current , the thumb will point in the direction of force.

(ii) Right-hand Palm Rule : Stretch the fingers and thumb of right hand at right angles to each other. Then if the fingers point in the direction of field $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}}$ and thumb in the direction of current $\mathbf{I}$, the normal to palm will point in the direction of force.

Regarding the force on a current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field it is worth mentioning that :

(a) As the force BI d\ell sin \theta is not a function of position r, the magnetic force on a current element is non-central [a central force is of the form $\mathrm{F}=\mathrm{Kf}(\mathrm{r}) \overrightarrow{\mathrm{n}_{\mathrm{r}}}]$

(b) The force d\vec $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{F}}$ is always perpendicular to both $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}}$ and $\mathrm{Id} \vec{\ell}$ though $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}}$ and $\mathrm{Id} \vec{\ell}$ may or may not be perpendicular to each other.

(c) In case of current-carrying conductor in a magnetic field if the field is uniform i.e.,

$\overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}}=$ constt.,

$\overrightarrow{\mathrm{F}}=\int \mathrm{I} \mathrm{d} \vec{\ell} \times \overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}}=\mathrm{I}\left[\int \mathrm{d} \vec{\ell}\right] \times \overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}}$

and as for a conductor $\int_{\mathrm{d}} \vec{\ell}$ represents the vector sum of all the length elements from initial to final point, which in accordance with the law of vector addition is equal to the length vector $\overrightarrow{\ell^{\prime}}$ joining initial to final point, so a current-carrying conductor of any arbitrary shape in a uniform field experience a force

$\vec{F}=I\left[\int d \vec{\ell}\right] \times \vec{B}=I \ell^{\prime} \times \vec{B}$

where $\vec{\ell}$ is the length vector joining initial and final points of the conductor as shown in fig.

(d) If the current-carrying conductor in the form of a loop of any arbitrary shape is placed in a uniform field,

$\overrightarrow{\mathrm{F}}=\oint \mathrm{Id\vec{\ell }} \times \overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}}=\mathrm{I}[\oint \overrightarrow{\mathrm{d} \vec{\ell}}] \times \overrightarrow{\mathrm{B}}$

and as for a closed loop, $\oint \mathrm{d} \vec{\ell} \text { is always zero. [vector sum of all } \mathrm{d} \vec{\ell}]$

i.e., the net magnetic force on a current loop in a uniform magnetic field is always zero as shown in fig.

Here it must be kept in mind that in this situation different parts of the loop may experience elemental force due to which the loop may be under tension or may experience a torque as shown in fig.

Current Loop in a Uniform Field

(e) if a current-carrying conductor is situated in a non-uniform field, its different elements will experience different forces; so in this situation,

$\overrightarrow{\mathrm{F}_{\mathrm{R}}} \neq 0$ but $\overrightarrow{\mathrm{\tau}}$ may or may not be zero


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Right Hand Palm Rule

So far we have described the magnitude of the magnetic force on a moving electric charge, but not the direction. The magnetic field is
a vector field, thus the force applied will be oriented in a particular direction. There is a clever way to determine this direction using nothing more than your right hand. The direction of the magnetic force $F$ is perpendicular to the plane formed by $v$ and $B$, as determined by the right hand palm rule, which is illustrated in the figure. The right hand rule states that ito determine the direction of the magnetic force on a positive moving charge, $f$, point the thumb of the right hand in the direction of $v,$ the fingers in the direction of $B,$ and a perpendicular to the palm points in the direction of $F$

Right Hand Palm Rule

If we hold the thumb of right hand mutually perpendicular to the grip of the fingers such that the curvature of the finger represents the direction of current in the wire loop, then the thumb of the right hand will point in the direction of magnetic field near the centre of the current loop

Graph of B v/s x

As soon as x increases magnetic field B decreases, dependence of B on x is shown in figure

Rate of change of B with respect to x is different at different values of x

for $x<\pm \frac{a}{2}$ curve is convex and $\quad$ for $x>\pm \frac{a}{2}$ curve is concave

At $x=\pm \frac{a}{2} \quad$ we get $\frac{d B}{d x}=$ const $,$ and $\frac{d^{2} B}{d x^{2}}=0$

So at $x=+\frac{a}{2} \&-\frac{a}{2}$ B varies linearly with $x$

These points are called point of inflexion.

Distance in between these two points is equal to radius of the coil

$B=\frac{B_{C}}{\left(1+\frac{x^{2}}{a^{2}}\right)^{3 / 2}}$

$\because$ Magnetic field at the centre of coil $\mathrm{B}_{\mathrm{C}}=\frac{\mu_{0} \mathrm{NI}}{2 \mathrm{a}}$

 

 

Also Read:

Biot Savart’s Law

 

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Mind Map of Sound Waves Class 11, JEE & NEET – Download from here

Sound Waves in Class 11 comprises variety of cases with important formulae and key points. So here is the mind map to help you in remembering all the formulas and important key concepts on finger tips.

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Physical Significance of Moment of Inertia for Class 11, JEE & NEET

Lets study about Moment of Inertia of a Rigid Body and Physical Significance of Moment of Inertia here.

MOMENT OF INERTIA OF RIGID BODY
It is the property of a body due to which it opposes any change in its state of rest or uniform rotation. Analytically for a particle of mass m rotating in a circle of radius R, moment of inertia of a particle of mass m about the axis of rotation is given by:

$\mathrm{I}=\mathrm{mR}^{2}$ . . . . .(1)

So for a body made up of number of particles (discrete distribution) of masses $m_{1}, m_{2}, \ldots \ldots \ldots$. etc. at
distance $r_{1}, r_{2}, \ldots$ etc. respectively from the axis of rotation, then moment of inertia of all these particles are
$m_{1} r_{1}^{2}, m_{2} r_{2}^{2}, \ldots$ and moment of intertia of body ( $I$ ) is the algebric sum of moment of inertia of all these
particles-

i.e. $\quad \mathrm{I}=\mathrm{m}_{1} \mathrm{r}_{1}^{2}+\mathrm{m}_{2} \mathrm{r}_{2}^{2}+\ldots \ldots+\mathrm{m}_{\mathrm{r}_{1} \mathrm{i}}^{2}+\mathrm{m}_{\mathrm{n}} \mathrm{r}_{\mathrm{n}}^{2}=\sum_{i=1}^{\mathrm{n}} \mathrm{m}_{\mathrm{r}_{1}} \mathrm{r}_{1}^{2} \ldots \ldots(2)$
$\quad \quad \mathrm{m}_{\mathrm{i}}=\mathrm{mass}$ of ith particle

$r_{i}=$ distance of ith particle from axis of rotation

While for a continuous distribution of mass, treating the element of mass dm as particle at position r from
axis of Rotation.
$$
\begin{array}{ll}{\text { dI }=\mathrm{dm} \mathrm{r}^{2},} & {\text { i.e., } \quad \mathrm{I}=\int \mathrm{r}^{2} \mathrm{d} \mathrm{m}}\end{array}
$$ . . . . (3)

It is a scalar quantity
Unit : M.K.S.: $\mathrm{kg}-\mathrm{m}^{2},$ C. G.S. : $\mathrm{gm}-\mathrm{cm}^{2}$
Dimension : $\mathrm{M}^{1} \mathrm{L}^{2} \mathrm{T}^{0}$

Moment of inertia depends on the following factors.
i) Mass of body
ii) Mass distribution of body or shape, size and density of body.
iii) On the position of the axis of rotation.

The more is the distribution of mass with respect to axis of rotation the more will be moment of
inertia.
Moment of Inertia does not depend on the following factors.

(i) Angular velocity

(ii) Angular Acceleration

(iii) Torque

(iv) Angular Momentum

 

PHYSICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF MOMENT OF INERTIA:Comparison of the expression for rotational motion with corresponding relations for translatory motion as
given in table I, we get moment of inertia plays same role in rotatory motion as mass in translatory
motion, i.e., if a body has large moment of inertia, it is difficult to start rotation or to stop it if rotating. Large
moment of inertia also helps in keeping the motion uniform. Due to this reason stationary engines are
provided with fly-wheels having large moment of inertia.

 

Inertia for rotational motion is moment of inertia.

 

 

Introduction to Rotational Dynamics 

Moment of Inertia

Moment of Inertia: Perpendicular and Parallel axis theorem

Radius of Gyration

Law of Conservation of Angular Momentum

Conservation of Angular Momentum Examples

Kinetic Energy of a Rotating Body

Work done in rotatory Motion

Rotational Power

Combine Translational and Rotational Motion

Rolling without slipping

Rolling on a plane surface

Rolling on a Inclined Plane

 

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Class 11 PHYSICS

Physical World

Units and Measurements

Motion in a Straight Line

Motion in a Plane

Law of Motion

Work, Energy and Power

Systems of Particles and Rotational Motion

Gravitation

Mechanical Properties of Solids

Mechanical Properties of Fluids

Thermal Properties of matter

Thermodynamics

Kinetic Theory

Oscillations

Waves

Class 12 PHYSICS

Electric Charge and Fields

Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Current Electricity, Chemical Effects of Electric Current,

Thermoelectric Effects of Electric Current 

Heating Effects of Electric Current

Moving Charges and Magnetism

Magnetism and Matter

Electromagnetic Induction

Alternating Current

Electromagnetic Wave

Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Wave Optics

Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Atoms

Nuclei

Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits.

Communication Systems

 

Class 11 CHEMISTRY

Basic Concepts of Chemistry

Atomic structure

Classification of Elements & Periodicity in Properties

States of Matter

Chemical Bonding

Thermodynamics

Chemical Equilibrium 

Ionic Equilibrium

Redox Reactions

Hydrogen

S-Block Elements

Carbon Family p-block Elements 

Boron Family p-block Elements

General Organic Chemistry

Hydrocarbons

Class 12 CHEMISTRY

 

The Solid State

Solutions

Electrochemistry

Chemical Kinetics

Surface Chemistry

Principal and Process of Isolation of Elements

The p-block Elements

Nitrogen Family

Halogen Family

Noble Gases

Oxygen Family

The d & f block Elements

Coordination Compounds

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Alcohol, Phenol & Ethers

Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acid

Amines

Polymers

Bio molecules

Chemistry in everyday Life

 

 

Class 11 MATH

Probability

Parabola 

Relation and Function 

Hyperbola 

Quadratic Equation and Expression

Demoivre’s Theorem of Complex Numbers

Progression in Math 

Complex Numbers

Permutations & Combinations

Height and Distance Questions 

Trigonometric Equation 

Tangent and Normal

Straight Lines

Trignometric Ratio

Math Binomial Theorem 

 

Class 12 MATH

Relation and Functions

Inverse Trigonometric Function

Matrices

Determinants

Continuity and Differentiability

Application of Derivatives

Integrals

Application of Integrals

Differential Equation

Vector Algebra

Three Dimension Geometry

Linear Programming

Probability

 

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complete physics notes
Complete Physics Notes for Class 11th, IIT JEE and NEET Preparation

eSaral brings you detailed Class – 11th Physics study material.  eSaral provides a series of detailed chapter wise notes for all the Subjects of class 11th and 12th.  These notes will also help you in your IIT JEE & NEET preparations.

We hope these Physics Notes for Class 11 will help you understand the important topics and remember the key points for the exam point of view.

Below are the direct links for detailed chapter-wise 11th Physics study material.

 

  1. Physical World
  2. Units and Measurements
  3. Motion in a Straight Line
  4. Motion in a Plane
  5. Law of Motion
  6. Work, Energy and Power
  7. Systems of Particles and Rotational Motion
  8. Gravitation
  9. Mechanical Properties of Solids
  10. Mechanical Properties of Fluids
  11. Thermal Properties of matter
  12. Thermodynamics
  13. Kinetic Theory
  14. Oscillations
  15. Waves

 

 

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Statics & Dynamics Notes for Notes for Class 11, IIT JEE & NEET

eSaral provides you complete study material to prepare for IIT JEE, NEET and Boards Examination. Here are the detailed Statics and Dynamics Class 11 Notes with Important Questions that will also help in IIT JEE and boards preparation.

Statics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & DynamicsStatics & Dynamics

Thermal Properties of Matter
Thermal Properties of Matter Class 11 Notes – IIT JEE | NEET

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Thermal Properties of Matter Class 11 Notes

 

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About Saransh Gupta Sir
Computer Science Graduate from IIT Bombay. Cracked IIT-JEE with AIR-41 and AIEEE (JM) with AIR-71 in 2006. He is an author of JEE Mentorship Book “StrateJEE”.
He taught Physics for 5 years at Allen and was loved immensely by all the students. Many of his students bagged success with flying colours in JEE & NEET Exams.

 

eSaral brings you detailed Class 11th Physics study material.  eSaral provides a series of detailed chapter wise notes for all the Subjects of class 11th and 12th.  These notes will also help you in your IIT JEE & NEET preparations.

We hope these Physics Notes for Class 11 will help you understand the important topics and remember the key points for the exam point of view.

Get Complete Physics Notes for Physics Class 11 for easy learning and understanding. For free video lectures and complete study material, Download eSaral APP.

 

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Thermodynamics
Types of Heat Transfer | Conduction Convention and Radiation – IIT JEE | NEET

Mainly there are three types of Heat Transfer. Conduction, convention and Radiation. Learning about the types of heat transfer is crucial part of understanding thermodynamics.

Let’s learn more about types of Heat transfer, Conduction, convention and Radiation through these notes

Types of Heat Transfer: Conduction, convention and Radiation

Types of Heat Transfer: Convention

Conduction, convention and Radiation

eSaral have already come up with an amazing revision series of Physics where you can easily revise your chapter within minutes with all the important formulae and key points. This revision series is free for all.

Click Here for Complete Physics Revision Series by Saransh Gupta Sir (AIR-41)

About Saransh Gupta Sir
Computer Science Graduate from IIT Bombay. Cracked IIT-JEE with AIR-41 and AIEEE (JM) with AIR-71 in 2006. He is an author of JEE Mentorship Book “StrateJEE”.
He taught Physics for 5 years at Allen and was loved immensely by all the students. Many of his students bagged success with flying colours in JEE & NEET Exams.

 

eSaral brings you detailed Class 11th Physics study material.  eSaral provides a series of detailed chapter wise notes for all the Subjects of class 11th and 12th.  These notes will also help you in your IIT JEE & NEET preparations.

We hope these Physics Notes for Class 11 will help you understand the important topics and remember the key points for the exam point of view.

Get Complete Physics Notes for Physics Class 11 for easy learning and understanding. For free video lectures and complete study material, Download eSaral APP.

 

About eSaral
At eSaral we are offering a complete platform for IIT-JEE & NEET preparation. The main mission behind eSaral is to provide education to each and every student in India by eliminating the Geographic and Economic factors, as a nation’s progress and development depends on the availability of quality education to each and every one. With the blend of education & technology, eSaral team made the learning personalized & adaptive for everyone.

Motion in One Dimension
Motion in a Straight Line Notes – Class 11 IIT JEE | NEET

eSaral provides complete comprehensive chapter-wise notes for Class 11 Physics. Here you’ll get Motion in a straight-Line Notes for Class 11. These notes are also helpful in JEE and NEET Exams. These notes comprise proper images with diagram.

In this chapter, students will get to learn about Motion in A Straight Line, Frame of reference. Learn about Position-time graph, speed and velocity in this unit.

Get to know the Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion, uniform and nonuniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity, uniformly accelerated motion, velocity – time and position-time graphs. Relations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment) in this chapter. Let’s study in detail about all these.

 

 

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About Saransh Gupta Sir
Computer Science Graduate from IIT Bombay. Cracked IIT-JEE with AIR-41 and AIEEE (JM) with AIR-71 in 2006. He is an author of JEE Mentorship Book “StrateJEE”.
He taught Physics for 5 years at Allen and was loved immensely by all the students. Many of his students bagged success with flying colours in JEE & NEET Exams.

eSaral brings you detailed Class 11th Physics study material.  eSaral provides a series of detailed chapter wise notes for all the Subjects of class 11th and 12th.  These notes will also help you in your IIT JEE & NEET preparations.

We hope these Physics Notes for Class 11 will help you understand the important topics and remember the key points for the exam point of view.

Get Complete Physics Notes for Physics Class 11 for easy learning and understanding. For free video lectures and complete study material, Download eSaral APP.

About eSaral
At eSaral we are offering a complete platform for IIT-JEE & NEET preparation. The main mission behind eSaral is to provide education to each and every student in India by eliminating the Geographic and Economic factors, as a nation’s progress and development depends on the availability of quality education to each and every one. With the blend of education & technology, eSaral team made the learning personalized & adaptive for everyone.

Vectors Physics Class 11 – IIT JEE | NEET

eSaral Provides free detailed Vector Physics Notes that will help you in exams like IIT JEE, NEET and Board Preparation. Vector in physics is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction.

Vector Class Notes

Relative Velocity Class 11 – IIT JEE | NEET

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Relative Velocity Concept

Simple Harmonic Motion
Oscillations Class 11: Simple Harmonic Motion Notes for IIT JEE & NEET

eSaral Provides you free detailed Simple Harmonic Motion notes that will help you in exams like IIT JEE, NEET and Board Preparation.

simple harmonic motion notes

 

 

eSaral have already come up with an amazing revision series of Physics where you can easily revise your chapter within minutes with all the important formulae and key points. This revision series is free for all.

Click Here for Complete Physics Revision Series by Saransh Gupta Sir (AIR-41)

About Saransh Gupta Sir
Computer Science Graduate from IIT Bombay. Cracked IIT-JEE with AIR-41 and AIEEE (JM) with AIR-71 in 2006. He is an author of JEE Mentorship Book “StrateJEE”.
He taught Physics for 5 years at Allen and was loved immensely by all the students. Many of his students bagged success with flying colours in JEE & NEET Exams.

 

eSaral brings you detailed Class 11th Physics study material.  eSaral provides a series of detailed chapter wise notes for all the Subjects of class 11th and 12th.  These notes will also help you in your IIT JEE & NEET preparations.

We hope these Physics Notes for Class 11 will help you understand the important topics and remember the key points for the exam point of view.

Get Complete Physics Notes for Physics Class 11 for easy learning and understanding. For free video lectures and complete study material, Download eSaral APP.

 

About eSaral
At eSaral we are offering a complete platform for IIT-JEE & NEET preparation. The main mission behind eSaral is to provide education to each and every student in India by eliminating the Geographic and Economic factors, as a nation’s progress and development depends on the availability of quality education to each and every one. With the blend of education & technology, eSaral team made the learning personalized & adaptive for everyone.