Complete notes for Physics, Chemistry and Biology
eSaral brings you detailed study material for Class 11  & Class 12 for Physics, Chemistry and Biology.  eSaral provides a series of detailed chapter wise notes for all  Subjects.  These notes will also help you in your NEET preparations. Below are the direct links for detailed chapter-wise Notes. You can View or Download them:

## Class 11 PHYSICS

Physical World Units and Measurements Motion in a Straight Line Motion in a Plane Law of Motion Work, Energy and Power Systems of Particles and Rotational Motion Gravitation Mechanical Properties of Solids Mechanical Properties of Fluids Thermal Properties of matter Thermodynamics Kinetic Theory Oscillations Waves

## Class 12 PHYSICS

Electric Charge and Fields Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance Current Electricity, Chemical Effects of Electric Current Moving Charges and Magnetism Magnetism and Matter Electromagnetic Induction Alternating Current Electromagnetic Wave Ray Optics and Optical Instruments Wave Optics Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter Atoms Nuclei Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits. Thermoelectric Effects of Electric Current  Heating Effects of Electric Current Communication Systems

## Class 11 CHEMISTRY

Basic Concepts of Chemistry Atomic structure Classification of Elements & Periodicity in Properties States of Matter Chemical Bonding Thermodynamics Chemical Equilibrium  Ionic Equilibrium Redox Reactions Hydrogen S-Block Elements Carbon Family p-block Elements  Boron Family p-block Elements General Organic Chemistry Hydrocarbons

## Class 12 CHEMISTRY

The Solid State Solutions Electrochemistry Chemical Kinetics Surface Chemistry Principal and Process of Isolation of Elements The p-block Elements Nitrogen Family Halogen Family Noble Gases Oxygen Family The d & f block Elements Coordination Compounds Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Alcohol, Phenol & Ethers Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acid Amines Polymers Bio molecules Chemistry in everyday Life
Transmission of Heat : Question Bank for Class 11 Physics
Get important questions of Heat and Thermodynamics for Board exams. Download or View 11th Physics important questions for exam point of view. These important questions will play significant role in clearing concepts of Physics. This question bank is designed by NCERT keeping in mind and the questions are updated with respect to upcoming Board exams. You will get here all the important questions for class 11 Physics chapter wise CBSE. Q.1 In what respect is heat radiation different from light ? Ans.The only difference between them is their wavelength or frequency. Q.2 Is it necessary that all black coloured objects should be considered black bodies ?Ans. No, we can not consider a polished black surface as a black body as it reflects radiation incident on it. On the other hand, sun, which is dazzling white, is a black body. Q.3 Glass stopper in a bottle get stuck to the neck, the neck is heated to loosen the stopper. Why? Ans. Glass is a bad conductor, so when the mouth of bottle is heated it expands in cross – section but not the stopper. The stopper thus separates. Q.4 In a winter night we feel warmer when clouds cover the sky than when the sky is clear. Why ? Ans. This is because heat can not be escaped due to cloud covering as cloud is bad conductor of heat. Q.5 Explain why we can easily boil water in a paper cap? Ans. It is because heat is easily conducted through the paper to water, and as such the temperature reached is not sufficient for the paper to be charred. Q.6 A piece of paper wrapped lightly on a wooden rod is found to be charred quickly when held over a flame compared to a similar piece of paper wrapped on a brass rod. Why ? Ans. Brass being a good conductor of heat conducts away heat very rapidly such that the paper does not reach the charring temperature. But when wrapped on a wooden rod the heat can not conduct away and so the paper soon reaches the charring temperature and get charred. Q.7 A solid sphere of copper of radius R and a hollow sphere of the same material having internal radius r and external radius R are heated to same temperature. They are allowed to cool in the same environment. Which of them starts cooling faster ? Ans. The solid sphere and the hollow sphere have got the same surface area. So, the rate of loss of heat is same for both. But we know that the rate of loss of heat $=$ mass of object $\times$ sp. heat $\times$ rate of fall of Temperature So, the hollow sphere having less mass has greater rate of fall of temperature. Q.8 Explain why in summer a block of metal feels hotter than a block of wood while in winter reverse in the case, although temperature of both is same either in summer or in winter (what ever it is). At what temperature would the two feel equally hot or cold ? Ans. When we touch a body, the feeling of hotness depends not only upon the temperature but also on the thermal conductivity. The conductivity of metals is much higher than that of wood. In summer room temperature is more than that of human body (37°C). So, on touching heat will flow from blocks to our body. Due to large thermal conductivity metals will conduct while wood will not and as heat flows from higher temperature to lower, metal will appear hotter than wood. In winter room temperature is lower than that of body, so on touching heat will flow from our body to blocks. However, due to large thermal conductivity of metal heat will flow from body to metal so it will appear colder than wood. However if the temperature of room i.e., block is at 37°C (equal to that of our body) no transfer of heat will take place between our body and the blocks (whatever be their thermal conductivities) and so both will appear equal hot or cold. Q.9 Explain why rooms are provided with the ventilators near the roof ? Ans. It is done to remove the harmful impure air, and to replace it by the cool fresh air. The air we breathe out is warm and so it is lighter. It rises upwards and can go out through the ventilator provided near the roof. The cold fresh air from outside enter the room through the doors and windows. Thus, the convection current is set up in the air. Q.10 The woolen blanket keeps our body warm, but on wrapping ice with the same blanket, it keeps ice cold. Why ? Ans. The insulating action of the blanket is due to the air filled in the numerous small holes. The air is a bad conductor of heat, further convection currents can not be formed in the air surrounded by the fibres of the blanket. When we cover our body by an blanket, the air in it prevents heat transfer from our body to the surroundings. Hence our body remains warm. When a piece of ice is covered by this blanket, the same air prevents the transfer of heat from out side to ice. Hence ice remains cold. Q.11 Can we boil water inside an earth satellite by convection ? Ans. No, in convection the hot liquid at the bottom becoming lighter, rises up. Since the base of convection is the difference in weight and upthrust. In weightlessness this difference does not occur. So, convection is not possible in earth’s satellite. Q.12 A blackened platinum wire, when gradually heated, appears first dull red, then yellow, then blue and finally white. Why ? Ans. According to Wein’s displacement law, $\lambda_{m} T=$ constant On heating up to ordinary temperature only long wavelength (red) radiation is emitted. As the temperature rises, shorter wavelengths are also emitted in more and more quantity, hence the colour of radiation emitted by the hot wire shifts from red to yellow, then to blue and finally to white. Q.13 Out of the three stars in the sky, one appears white, the second reddish and the third bluish. which one of these has the lowest temperatures and which one highest and why ? Ans. As temperature of a body rises, the quantity of high energy (shorter wavelength) radiation increases in the radiant energy emitted by it. Hence the star appearing reddish has the lowest temperature and that appearing bluish has the highest temperature. Q.14 In a burning coal oven, the cavities in the coal pieces looks brighter than the surface of the coal, though their temperature is not higher than the coal surface, Why ? Ans. The cavities in the hot coal behave like a black-body. Hence in the rate of radiation $\left(=\sigma e T^{4}\right)$ from these cavities the emissive power e is 1. For the surface of the coal the value of e is less than 1, its rate of radiation is less. So, cavities, being at the same temperature, look brighter. Q.15 Black-body radiation is white. Comment on this statement. Ans. White radiation is one which includes all possible wavelengths. Since, a black body absorbs all wavelengths, so on being heated to suitable temperatures, it can also emit all wavelengths. Hence, black-body radiation is white. Long Answer Type [5 Marks] Q.16 What is meant by emissive power and absorptive power of a surface ? Describe an experiment to show that good absorbers are good emitters and bad absorbers are bad emitters. Ans. Emissive Power : The emissive power of a body at a certain temperature is defined as the total amount of thermal energy emitted per unit time, per unit area of the body for all possible wavelengths. It is represented by ‘e’ and for certain wavelength range as ‘$e_{\lambda}$’ . Its value depends upon the nature of surface, its temperature and wavelength of radiation emitted. Absorptive Power : The absorptive power of a body is defined as the ratio of the amount of thermal radiations absorbed by the body in a given time to the total amount of thermal radiations incident on the body in same time. It is represented by ‘a’ and for certain wavelength range it is$^{\prime} a_{\lambda}^{\prime}$ Its value depends upon the nature of surface colour of object, temperature and wavelength of incident radiations. The experimental set up for showing good absorbers are good emitters and bad absorbers are bad emitters is shown in figure. It consists of two cylindrical vessels Q & R fixed to two ends of a glass U-tube, which contains air. Between them is placed a third metallic vessal P mounted on a pillar which can be rotated about a vertical axis. The front and back faces of these vessels are flat and equal in area. The faces of D and B are blackened by coating lamp black and the faces C & A are polished. The U-tube is filled with coloured water. Initially boiling water is filled in vessel P and it is found that no change in the levels of coloured water takes place. Now if the vessel P is rotated through 180°, then the level of coloured water starts moving from Q to R because in this position good absorber faces good emitter (black surface faces black surface) and bad absorber faces bad emitter (Polished surface faces polished surface). Hence, from above experiment it is clear that good absorbers are good emitters and bad absorber are bad emitters.   eSaral provides you complete edge to prepare for Board and Competitive Exams like JEE, NEET, BITSAT, etc. We have transformed classroom in such a way that a student can study anytime anywhere. With the help of AI we have made the learning Personalized, adaptive and accessible for each and every one. Visit eSaral Website to download or view free study material for JEE & NEET. Also get to know about the strategies to Crack Exam in limited time period.
Work Energy and Power: Question Bank for Class 11 Physics
Get important questions of Rotational Motion for Board exams. Download or View 11th Physics important questions for exam point of view. These important questions will play significant role in clearing concepts of Physics. This question bank is designed by NCERT keeping in mind and the questions are updated with respect to upcoming Board exams. You will get here all the important questions for class 11 Physics chapter wise CBSE. Click Here for Detailed Notes of any chapter.

1. What is the speed of an aircraft if the pilot remains in contact with the seat, even while looping in vertical plane?

Ans. For the pilot to stay at rest, centripetal force should

be provided by his weight, i.e., $\frac{m v^{2}}{r}=m g$

$\therefore \quad v=\sqrt{r g}$

Q.2 The kinetic energy of a particle moving in a horizontal circle may remain the same everywhere. Is it true for the motion in a vertical circle.?

Ans. No. For the motion in a vertical circle, the speed of the particle at the bottom is $\sqrt{5 g r}$ and at the top is $\sqrt{g r}$. Therefore, $\mathrm{K} . \mathrm{E}$. of the particle in a vertical circle is maximum at the bottom and minimum at the top.

Q.3 A stone of mass $m$ tied to the ended of a string of length $l$ is whirled in a vertical circle. What is the net force acting on the stone at the bottom and at the top of the vertical circle, if tension in the string at the bottom at the top is $T_{b}$ and $T_{t}$ respectively

$?$

Ans. Net force acting on the stone at the bottom of

the circle $=T_{b}-m g$

Net force at the top $=T_{t}+m g$

Q.4 Can magnitude of kinetic energy be negative?

Ans. No, kinetic energy can be zero or positive only

$$\text { because } K E=\frac{1}{2} m v^{2}, \text { because } \mathrm{m} \text { and } \mathrm{v}^{2} \text { cannot }$$

be negative.

Q.5 Is potential energy defined for non conservative force?

Ans. No, potential energy is defined only for conservative force. It does not exist for non conservative force.

Q.6 Does a body in motion always have potential energy?

Ans. A body in motion may or may not have potential energy.

Q.7 What is the significant of negative mechanical energy?

Ans. Negative value of mechanical energy indicates a bound state electron in an atom and a satellite revolving around a planet both are in bound state having negative mechanical energy.

Q.8 If rain drop move decreasing acceleration, does work done by gravitational force on the drop change.

Ans. It should be clearly understood that whether the drop move with decreasing acceleration or with uniform speed work done by the gravitational force on the drop remains the same.

Q.9 Can K.E. of a system be increased or decreased without applying any external force on the system.

Ans. Yes, by doing work through internal force e.g. in explosion of a bomb.

Q.10 Does the sun do any work on earth where earth revolves around the sun in a perfectly circular orbit?

Ans. No, because angle between gravitational pull and direction of motion at any instance is $=90^{\circ}$

Q.11 When an air bubble rises in water what happens to its potential energy?

Ans. Potential energy of air bubble decreases because work is done by upthrust on the bubble.

Q.12 Can a body have momentum without energy? Ans. Yes, when $\mathrm{E}=\mathrm{k}+\mathrm{u}=0$ either both are zero or $\mathrm{k}$$=-\mathrm{u} . thus \mathrm{K.E.} may or may not be zero As P=\sqrt{2 m k} \therefore P=0 only when \mathrm{k}=0 and P \neq 0 when \mathrm{k}=-\mathrm{u} Q.13 Can a body have energy without momentum? Ans. Yes, when P=0 \quad k=\frac{P^{2}}{2 m}=0 But E=k+u=u (potential energy) which may or may not be zero. Q.14 In which motion momentum change but K.E. does not? Ans. In uniform circular motion. Q.15 Can a body have momentum when its energy is negative? Ans. Yes, when \mathrm{k}<\mathrm{u}, total energy E=k+u is negative, the body has the momentum (\because k \neq 0) . For example in an atom, electron has momentum though its energy is negative. Q.17 Can work be defined at a position or at instant? Ans. No, work is not defined at a position or at an instant. Work is defined during the time interval within which the force has undergone displacement unlike velocity and acceleration, momentum and kinetic energy it is not the characteristic of moving body it is something which happen an a body which produces or destroys motion of the body. Q.17 A man left 10 bricks to the top of a building by going up a vertical spiral staircase in 5 mins whereas a boy lefts 10 bricks to the top of the building by going up a standing ladder in 10 mins who does greater amount of work. Ans. Both do the same amount of work, because work done does not depend on path followed and time take to complete work. Q018 As the bob of a pendulum swings does the tension in the string do any work on it. Ans. No, because angle between tension and displacement is 90^{\circ} . Q.19 What is work done by conservative force round a closed path? Ans. Zero. Q.20 A man rowing boat upstream is at rest with respect to the shore is he doing work. Ans. The boat is at rest with respect to the shore but itis moving up stream with respect to water. The man is doing work relative to the stream because he is applying force to produce relative motionbetween the boat and stream, but he does no work relative to the shore as displacement relative to shore is zero. Q.21 Why a metal ball rebounds better than a rubber ball? Ans. When rubber ball hits a massive object say earth the ball is distorted. A large amount of heat is generated in the ball by the rubbing of the rubber molecules against each other this effect is essentially absent in a band material so metal ball would often loseless energy upon collision than would a rubber ball. Q.22 The outer casing of a rocket is burnt due to friction between casing and air, who supplies the energy necessary for burning. The rocket or the atmosphere? Ans. Due to friction with the air the speed hence the kinetic energy of the rocket decreases. This decrease in the kinetic energy appears in the form of heat energy, thus energy necessary for burning is supplied by the rocket itself. Q.23 An artificial satellite orbiting the earth in very thin atmosphere loses its energy gradually due to dissipation against atmospheric resistance- however small, why then does its speed increase progressively as it comes closer and closer to the earth. Ans. As a satellite comes closer to the earth its potential energy decrease. According to the law of conservation of energy the total energy of the system must remain constant. Now total energy =\mathrm{KE}+\mathrm{PE}+ heat energy. Because the heat loss due to friction is very small a decrease in potential energy result in a net increase in kinetic energy. Hence speed of a satellite progressively increase as it comes closer to the earth. Q.24 In a tug-of-war one team is slowly giving way to the other is work being done on the losing team. How about the wining team. Ans. Work is done on the losing team because that team is being dragged in the direction of the force applied by the wining team. This work done is said to be positive work, work is also done on the wining team because the wining team is being displaced opposite to the direction of the force applied by the losing team. This work done is said to be negative work. Q.25 In a circus, the diameter of globe of death is 30 m. From what minimum height must a cyclist start in order to roll down the inclined and go round the globe successfully? Ans. Diameter of globe =30 \mathrm{m} Radius of globe, r=15 \mathrm{m} Let h be the minimum height from which the cyclist after rolling down an incline will acquire velocity =\sqrt{2 g h} For looping the loop, the minimum velocity at the lowest point should be \sqrt{5 g r}. \therefore \sqrt{5 g r}=\sqrt{2 g h} \Rightarrow h=\frac{5 r}{2}=\frac{5 \times 15}{2}=37.5 \mathrm{m} Q.26 Two inclined frictionless tracks one gradual and the other steep meet at A from where two stones are allowed to slide down from rest one on. Each track well the two stones reach the bottom with the same speed. Will they reach the bottom at the same time. Ans. Let m_{1} and m_{2} be the masses of the stones sliding down respectively on the track A B and A C of same height A D=h but of different inclination \theta_{1} and \theta_{2} where \theta_{2}>\theta_{1}. In the sliding down of the stones their potential energies at a will be converted into their kinetic energies at \mathrm{B} and \mathrm{C} that is m_{1} g h=\frac{1}{2} m_{1} v_{1}^{2} and m_{2} g h=\frac{1}{2} m_{2} v_{2}^{2} Then, v_{1}=v_{2}=\sqrt{2 g h} The stones will reach the bottom with same speed. As clear from the figure the accelerations of the stones along the inclined planes are a_{1}=g \sin \theta_{1} and a_{2}=g \sin \theta_{2} a_{2}>a_{1} because \theta_{2}>\theta_{1} From the relation v=u tat (\text { here } u=0) the time taken by the stones in reaching the bottom are f_{1}=\frac{v_{1}}{a_{1}}, f_{2}=\frac{v_{2}}{a_{2}} since v_{1}=v_{2} and a_{2}>a_{1} we have f_{1}>f_{2} The stones will reach the bottom at different times that on the steep plane will reach earlier. Q.27. Given below P Q R S T is a channel in the vertical plane, part Q R S T being circular arc of radius r . \mathrm{A} ball is released from P, and slides without friction, and without rolling. Show that it will complete the loop path if h is greater than \frac{5 \mathrm{r}}{2}. Sol. When the ball ( 0 f mass m ) reaches \theta, its \mathrm{P.E.} changes into kinetic energy such that$$m g h=\frac{1}{2} m v_{1}^{2}$$Q.28 A small washer is placed on the top of a hemisphere of radius$r$. What minimum horizontal velocity should be imparted to the washer to detach it from the hemisphere at the initial point of motion$?$Sol. eSaral provides you complete edge to prepare for Board and Competitive Exams like JEE, NEET, BITSAT, etc. We have transformed classroom in such a way that a student can study anytime anywhere. With the help of AI we have made the learning Personalized, adaptive and accessible for each and every one. Visit eSaral Website to download or view free study material for JEE & NEET. Also get to know about the strategies to Crack Exam in limited time period. NEET 2020 | Exam Pattern, Important dates, Application Form, Eligibility NEET Application Form 2020 is going to release in the months of December. National Eligibility cum Entrance Test or NEET (previously known as AIPMT) is the national-level Medical Entrance exam for the aspirants to get admission in MBBS/BDS Courses in various government or private medical colleges affiliated by Medical Council of India. Get the Following details about NEET 2020 here: Examination Mode Important Dates How to Apply? Application Fee Eligibility Criteria Correction in Application Language Choices Exam Pattern NEET 2020 Syllabus NEET Counselling Recently, the Ministry of Health announced that admission to MBBS courses in medical colleges across the country including JIPMER and all the AIIMS will be through the common national entrance test NEET. So, AIMS and JIPMER are no longer to be held. ### Examination Mode As per the latest notice, NTA has cleared that NEET 2020 will take place in offline mode only! ### Important Dates for NEET 2020  EVENTS DATES Release of NEET application form 2020 December 2, 2019 Deadline to register for NEET 2020 December 31, 2019 NTA NEET admit card 2020 March 27, 2020 NEET 2020 exam May 3, 2020 NEET Result 2020 June 4, 2020 ### How to Apply? Step 1: Visit the official site of NTA www.ntaneet.nic.in Click on “Apply online” of application form link. Step 2: Candidates need to register online Official website – www.ntaneet.nic.in To complete the registration process, he/she will have to enter a valid email Id and phone number. Step 3: Completing the NEET 2020 application Post completion of the registration process, the registration Id and password generated will be sent to the registered email Id and mobile number of the candidate. He/she has to use these login credentials to access the application form of NEET 2020. To complete the form, he/she has to fill in the required personal details, academic details, exam centre preference, etc. Step 4: Uploading scanned images Candidates have to upload the scanned image of a recent passport-sized photograph and signature. These have to be in JPG/JPEG format only. Step 5: Application fee NEET 2020 application form cannot be submitted without paying the prescribed non-refundable application fee. Candidates who belong to the general or OBC category have to pay an application fee of Rs 1400, whereas those belonging to the reserved categories such as ST/SC/PWD have to pay Rs 750. Step 6: Print the confirmation page Candidates are advised to keep a copy of the filled application and payment receipt for future use. ### Application fee NEET 2020 application form cannot be submitted without paying the prescribed non-refundable application fee. • General or OBC category have to pay an application fee of Rs 1400, • Reserved categories such as ST/SC/PWD have to pay Rs 750. ### Eligibility Criteria: #### Citizenship Indian, Persons of Indian Origin (PIOs), Overseas Citizens of India (OCIs), Foreign Nationals and Non-resident Indians (NRIs) candidates will be considered as eligible and can fill up the NEET 2020 application form. #### Age Limit The Minimum age limit (General Category) to apply for NEET 2020 exam should be 17 Years. However, the maximum age limit is 25 Years. Candidates belonging to SC/ST/OBC/PH should have their birthdate between 07.05.1988 and 01.01.2002. #### Age Relaxation  Category Age Relaxation SC/ST/OBC/PH 05 Years of Age Relaxation #### Educational Qualification Criteria: To apply for NEET exam 2020, you must have passed Higher Secondary Examination (12th board examination) with Chemistry, Physics, and Biology/ Biotechnology with minimum 50% marks in each subject. Candidates from National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) or any State Open School are also eligible to apply. Note: Candidates appearing in the qualifying exam can also apply for NEET 2020 exam. ### Correction in Application Form Correction Date for NEET Application: The application form correction for NEET 2020 exam will start from January 1st Week, 2019 (tentative). NEET Application Correction Procedure: A form will be provided for correction facility such as uploading images, signature, etc. Please note that this is a onetime opportunity, so use this chance carefully. To make the changes, visit the official site, now click on the ‘candidate’s login’. Submit your registration number and password. Now click on the form correction link, make changes and submit the form. ### Language Choices You will get the question paper in the following languages: Hindi, English, Assamese, Urdu, Telugu, Tamil, Gujarati, Marathi, Oriya, Kannada and Bengali. ### Exam Pattern: The exam includes questions from Physics, Chemistry and Biology curriculum of class XI and XII. Both Physics and Chemistry have 45 questions each. Biology has 90 questions divided equally among Botany and Zoology. The paper will have only multiple-choice questions. 1 mark will be deducted for every incorrect answer. For each correct answer, 4 marks will be awarded. 45 questions are assigned to Physics, Chemistry, Botany and Zoology, each. #### Subject #### Number of Questions #### Maximum Marks Physics 45 180 Chemistry 45 180 Biology (Zoology +Botany) 90 (45+45) 360 (180+180) Total 180 Questions 720 Marks ### Syllabus of NEET 2020 Click HERE for Detailed Syllabus of NEET 2020. #### NEET Syllabus for Physics: Class 11 Physical world and measurement Kinematics Laws of Motion Work, Energy and Power Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body Gravitation Properties of Bulk Matter Thermodynamics Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory Class 12 Electrostatics Current Electricity Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents Electromagnetic Waves Optics Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation Atoms and Nuclei Electronic Devices Oscillations and Waves ### NEET Syllabus for Chemistry: Class 11 Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry Structure of Atom Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure States of Matter: Gases and Liquids Thermodynamics Equilibrium Redox Reactions Hydrogen s-Block Element (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Some p-Block Elements Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques Hydrocarbons Environmental Chemistry Class 12 Solid State Solutions Electrochemistry Chemical Kinetics Surface Chemistry General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements p- Block Elements d and f Block Elements Coordination Compounds Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Biomolecules Polymers Chemistry in Everyday Life #### NEET Syllabus for Biology: Class 11 Diversity in Living World Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants Cell Structure and Function Plant Physiology Human physiology Class 12 Reproduction Genetics and Evolution Biology and Human Welfare Biotechnology and Its Applications Ecology and environment Result Declaration The exam conducting authority NTA will release the NEET 2020 result on their official site on 4th June, 2020. You can get here the direct link to check the NEET result once it is out. Make sure you have the roll number and date of birth to access the result. ### Admission (through NEET 2020) 15% AIQ (All India Quota), 85% State Quota, 100% deemed & ESIC, Management/NRI, Central Pool, AFMC Detailed Syllabus for NEET 2021 | Physics, Chemistry & Biology Top get an admission in to MBBS / BDS in medical and dental colleges in India is tough. Because of the fewer seats as compared to the number of competitors. In order to score high in NEET 2021 it is important to know the syllabus. Candidates can know the exact topics from which they will get questions in NEET 2021. There are some areas which candidates may not have studied in the syllabus of board exam. They can cover these chapters once they come to know of them through NEET 2021 syllabus. Here You will Get Detailed Syllabus for NEET 2021 NEET 2021 PHYSICS SYLLABUS NEET 2021 CHEMISTRY SYLLABUS NEET 2021 BIOLOGY SYLLABUS ## NEET Physics Syllabus 2021 ### Contents Class XI Syllabus #### Unit I: Physical World and Measurement Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures. Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications. #### Unit II: Kinematics Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position-time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment). Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components. Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion. Uniform circular motion. #### Unit III: Laws of Motion Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion; momentum and Newton’s second law of motion; impulse; Newton’s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication. Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road). #### Unit IV: Work, Energy and Power Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power. Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); non-conservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions. #### Unit V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod. Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples. Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. #### Unit VI: Gravitation Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites. #### Unit VII: Properties of Bulk Matter Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship. Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poisson’s ratio; elastic energy. Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications. Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise. Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry; change of state – latent heat. Heat transfer- conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation. Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Wein’s displacement law, and Green House effect. Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law. #### Unit VIII: Thermodynamics Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes. Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators. #### Unit IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path. #### Unit X: Oscillations and Waves Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM –Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance. Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect. ### Contents of Class XII Syllabus #### Unit I: Electrostatics Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field. Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside) Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric diploes in an electrostatic field. Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator. #### Unit II: Current Electricity Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (liner and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell. #### Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment. Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets. #### Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current. AC generator and transformer. #### Unit V: Electromagnetic Waves Need for displacement current. Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses. #### Unit VI: Optics Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism. Scattering of light- blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset. Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation, correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses. Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers. Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle. Interference, Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids. #### Unit VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation- particle nature of light. Matter waves- wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained). #### Unit VIII: Atoms and Nuclei Alpha- particle scattering experiments; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity- alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission and fusion. #### Unit IX: Electronic Devices Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors, insulators and semiconductors; semiconductor diode- I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator. Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR). Transistor as a switch. ## NEET Chemistry Syllabus 2019 ### Contents of Class XI Syllabus #### Unit I: Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry General Introduction: Important and scope of chemistry. Laws of chemical combination, Dalton’s atomic theory: concept of elements, atoms and molecules. Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept and molar mass; percentage composition and empirical and molecular formula; chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry. #### Unit II: Structure of Atom Atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals. #### Unit III: Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties Modern periodic law and long form of periodic table, periodic trends in properties of elements- atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy, electronegativity, valence. #### Unit IV: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond. #### Unit V: States of Matter: Gases and Liquids Three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature. Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations). #### Unit VI : Thermodynamics First law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity. Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction. #### Unit VII: Equilibrium Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of PH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples). #### Unit VIII: Redox Reactions Concept of oxidation and oxidation and reduction, redox reactions oxidation number, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers. #### Unit IX: Hydrogen Occurrence, isotopes, preparation, properties and uses of hydrogen; hydrides-ionic, covalent and interstitial; physical and chemical properties of water, heavy water; hydrogen peroxide-preparation, reactions, uses and structure; #### Unit X: s-Block Elements (Alkali and Alkaline earth metals) Group I and group 2 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses. Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds: Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca. #### Unit XI: Some p-Block Elements General Introduction to p-Block Elements. Group 13 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous properties of first element of the group; Boron, some important compounds: borax, boric acids, boron hydrides. Aluminium: uses, reactions with acids and alkalies. General 14 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, variation of properties, oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity, anomalous behaviour of first element. Carbon, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties: uses of some important compounds: oxides. Important compounds of silicon and a few uses: silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites, their uses. #### Unit XII: Organic Chemistry- Some Basic Principles and Techniques General introduction, methods of purification qualitative and quantitative analysis, classification and IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds. Electronic displacements in a covalent bond: inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyper conjugation. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of a covalent bond: free radials, carbocations, carbanions; electrophiles and nucleophiles, types of organic reactions #### Unit XIII: Hydrocarbons Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism, conformations (ethane only), physical properties, chemical reactions including free radical mechanism of halogenation, combustion and pyrolysis. Alkanes-Nomenclature, structure of double bond (ethene), geometrical isomerism, physical properties, methods of preparation: chemical reactions: addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), ozonolysis, oxidation, mechanism of electrophilic addition. Alkynes-Nomenclature, structure of triple bond (ethyne), physical properties, methods of preparation, chemical reactions: acidic character of alkynes, addition reaction of- hydrogen, halogens, hydrogen halides and water. Aromatic hydrocarbons- Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene; resonance, aromaticity; chemical properties: mechanism of electrophilic substitution- Nitration sulphonation, halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and acylation; directive influence of functional group in mono-substituted benzene; carcinogenicity and toxicity. #### Unit XIV: Environmental Chemistry Environmental pollution: Air, water and soil pollution, chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmospheric pollutants; acid rain ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer, greenhouse effect and global warming-pollution due to industrial wastes; green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution, strategy for control of environmental pollution. ### Contents of Class XII Syllabus #### Unit I: Solid State Classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators. #### Unit II: Solutions Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties- relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult’s law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties abnormal molecular mass. Van Hoff factor. #### Unit III: Electrochemistry Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variation of conductivity with concentration, kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and Laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell- electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, fuel cells; corrosion. #### Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation. #### Unit V: Surface Chemistry Adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions. #### Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements Principles and methods of extraction- concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron. #### Unit VII: p- Block Elements Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorous- allotropic forms; compounds of phosphorous: preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCI3 , PCI5 ) and oxoacids (elementary idea only). Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses; classification of oxides; ozone. Sulphur – allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur: preparation, preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only). Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds oxoacids of halogens (structures only). Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses. #### Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements General introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4. Lanthanoids- electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity, and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences. Actinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids. #### Unit IX: Coordination Compounds Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems) #### Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C –X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions. Optical rotation. Haloarenes: Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only). Uses and environment effects of – dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT. #### Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol. Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophillic substitution reactions, uses of phenols. Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties uses. #### Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses. Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses. #### Unit XIII: Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary secondary and tertiary amines. Cyanides and Isocyanides- will be mentioned at relevant places. Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry. #### Unit XIV: Biomolecules Carbohydrates- Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharide (glucose and fructose), D.L. configuration, oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen): importance. Proteins- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones- Elementary idea (excluding structure). Vitamins- Classification and function. Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA #### Unit XV: Polymers Classification- Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polyesters, bakelite; rubber, Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers. #### Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life Chemicals in medicines- analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines. Chemicals in food- preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants. Cleansing agents- soaps and detergents, cleansing action. ## NEET Biology Syllabus #### Unit I: Diversity in Living World Details What is living? Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens. Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids. Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms classification up to class, characteristic features and examples). Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples). #### Unit II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants Details Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus). Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only) #### Unit III: Cell Structure and Function Details Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus. Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action. B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance. #### Unit IV: Plant Physiology Details Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, simplest, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (brief mention). Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation. Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis. Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations- Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient. Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism. #### Unit V: Human Physiology Details Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea. Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders. Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system- Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure. Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney. Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout. Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in human scentral nervous system, peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear. Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease). (Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt in brief.) ### Contents of Class XII Syllabus #### Unit I: Reproduction Details Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species; Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation; vegetative propagation in plants. Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices; Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization; Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit; Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed and fruit formation. Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems; Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis- spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea). Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness) #### Unit II: Genetics and Evolution Details Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance; Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds, honey bee; Linkage and crossing over; Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia; Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes. Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulation- Lac Operon; Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing. Evolution: Origin of life; Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence); Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy-Weinberg’s principle; Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution. #### Unit III: Biology and Human Welfare Details Health and Disease; Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm); Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse. Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry. Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers. #### Unit IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications Details Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology). Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy; Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents. #### Unit V: Ecology and environment Details Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations; Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release. Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity; Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries. Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control; Water pollution and its control; Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management; Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning; Ozone depletion; Deforestation; Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues. ### NEET 2021 Mark Distribution ### NEET Syllabus Biology ### NEET Syllabus Physics ### NEET Syllabus Chemistry ### NEET 2021 held in 11 Languages Hindi English Marathi Oriya Gujrati Bengali Telugu Kannad Urdu Tamil Assamese For study Material Download eSaral APP. Click here & GET to know all about NEET 2021. Physics Question Bank Class 11 Rotational Motion Gravitation Simple Harmonic Motion Circular Motion Friction Newton’s Laws Of Motion Conservation Of Linear Of Momentum Projectile Motion Unit And Dimension Heat And Thermodynamics General Properties Of Matter Motion In One Dimension Class 12 Electrostatics Moving Charges & Magnetism Wave Optics Ray Optics Semiconductor Modern Physics Alternating Current Electromagnetic Induction Capacitor Current Electricity Post Your Madness Story Here Be as descriptive as possible. Ionic Equilibrium Short Notes for Class 11, JEE & NEET eSaral provides chemistry short notes for JEE and NEET to help students in revising topics quickly. These notes are completely based on latest syllabus and it includes all the tips and tricks that will help you in learning chemistry better and score well. The Notes will help you to understand the important topics and remember the key points for exam point of view. You can also access detailed Notes of chemistry here. Download or View Detailed Notes for Chemistry Class 11th Download or View Detailed Notes for Chemistry Class 12th Ionic Equilibrium Theory Fundamentals of Acids, Bases & Ionic Equilibrium Acids & Bases When dissolved in water, acids release$\mathrm{H}^{+}$ions, base release$\mathrm{OH}^{-}$ions. Arrhenius Theory When dissolved in water, the substances which release (i)$\mathrm{H}^{+}$ions are called acids (ii)$\mathrm{OH}^{-}$ions are called bases Bronsted & Lowry Concept Acids are proton donors, bases are proton acceptors Note that as per this definition, water is not necessarily the solvent. When a substance is dissolved in water, it is said to react with water e.g.$\mathrm{HCl}+\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} \rightarrow \mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{O}^{+}+\mathrm{Cl}^{-}$; HCl donates H+ to water, hence acid.$\mathrm{NH}_{3}+\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} \quad \rightarrow \mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}+\mathrm{OH}^{-}$; NH3 takes H+ from water, hence base. For the backward reaction,$N H_{4}^{+}$donate$H^{+}$, hence it is an acid;$O H^{-}$accepts H+, hence it is base.$N H_{3}$(base) &$N H_{4}^{+}$(acid) from conjugate acid base pair. Conjugate acid and bases To get conjugate acid of a given species add$\mathrm{H}^{+}$to it. e.g. conjugate acid of N2H4 is N2H5+. To get conjugate base of any species subtract H+ from it. e.g. Conjugate base of$\mathrm{NH}_{3}$is$\mathrm{NH}_{2}^{-}$. Note: Although$C I^{-}$is conjugate base of HCl, it is not a base as an independent species. In fact,anions of all strong acid like$C I, N O_{3}^{-}, C l O_{4}^{-}$etc. are neutral anions. Same is true for cations of strong bases like$K^{+}, N a^{+}, B a^{++}$etc. When they are dissolved in water, they do not react with water (i.e. they do not undergo hydrolysis) and these ions do not cause any change in pH of water (others like$\left.C N^{-} d o\right)$. Some examples of : Basic Anions :$\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{COO}^{-}, \mathrm{OH}^{-}, \mathrm{CN}^{-}$(Conjugate bases of weak acids) Acid Anions:$H S O_{3}^{-}, H S^{-}$etc. Note that these ions are amphoteric, i.e. they can behave both as an acid and as a base. e.g. for$\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{PO}_{4}^{-}:$Lewis Concept : Acids are substances which accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate bond and bases are the substances which donate a pair of electrons to form a coordinate bond. Important :$\mathrm{Ca}+\mathrm{S} \rightarrow \mathrm{Ca}^{2+}+\mathrm{S}^{2-}$is not a Lewis acidbase reaction since dative bond is not formed. Lewis Acids : As per Lewis concept, following species can acts as Lewis Acids : (i) Molecules in which central atom has incomplete octet. \text { (e.g. }\left.\mathrm{BF}_{3}, \mathrm{AlCl}_{3} \text { etc. }\right) (ii) Molecules which have a central atom with empty d orbitals \text { (e.g. }\left.\operatorname{six}_{4}, \mathrm{GeX}_{4}, \mathrm{PX}_{3}, \mathrm{TiCl}_{4} \text { etc. }\right) (iii) Simple Cations: Though all cations can be expected to be Lewis acids, \mathrm{Na}^{+}, \mathrm{Ca}^{++}, \mathrm{K}^{+} \text {etc. } show no tendency to accept electrons. However \mathrm{H}^{+}, \mathrm{Ag}^{+} etc. act as Lewis acids. (iv) Molecules having multiple bond between atoms of dissimilar electronegativity. Lewis bases are typically : (i) Neutral species having at least one lone pair of electrons. Autoprotolysis of water (or any solvent) \text { Autoprotolysis (or self-ionization) constant }\left(\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{w}}\right)=\left[\mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{O}^{+}\right]\left[\mathrm{OH}^{-}\right] \text { Hence, } \mathrm{pH}+\mathrm{pOH}=\mathrm{pK}_{\mathrm{w}} \text { at all temperatures } Condition of neutrality \left[\mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{O}^{+}\right]=\left[\mathrm{OH}^{-}\right] \text {(for water as solvent) } \text { At } 25^{\circ} \mathrm{C}, \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{W}}=10^{-14} \cdot \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{W}} increases with increase in temperature. Accordingly, the neutral point of water \left(\mathrm{pH}=7 \text { at } 25^{\circ} \mathrm{C}\right) also shifts to a value lower than 7 with increase in temperature. Important: \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{W}}=10^{-14} s a value at \text { (i) } 25^{\circ} \mathrm{C} \text { (ii) }for water only. If the temperature changes or if some other solvent is used, autoprotolysis constant will not be same. Ionisation Constant * \quad \text { For dissociation of weak acids (eg. HCN), HCN + H_{ } 2 } \mathrm{O} \text { 1 } \mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{O}^{+}+\mathrm{CN}^{-} \text {the equilibrium } constant expression is written as Ka =\frac{\left[\mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{O}^{+}\right]\left[\mathrm{CN}^{-}\right]}{[\mathrm{HCN}]} * For the Polyprotic acids \left(\mathrm{e} \cdot \mathrm{g} \cdot \mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{PO}_{4}\right) sucessive ionisation constants are denoted \text { by } \mathrm{K}_{1}, \mathrm{K}_{2}, \mathrm{K}_{3} \text { etc. } For \mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{PO}_{4}, \text { Similarly, } \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{b}} \text { denotes basic dissociation constant for a base. } \text { Also, } \mathrm{pK}_{\mathrm{a}}=-\log _{10} \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{a}}, \mathrm{pK}_{\mathrm{b}}=-\log _{10} \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{b}} \text { Some Important Results: }\left[\mathrm{H}^{+}\right] \text {concentration of } Case (i) A weak acid in water Similarly for a weak base, substitute \left[\mathrm{OH}^{-}\right] \text {and } \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{b}} instead of \left[\mathrm{H}^{+}\right] \text {and } \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{a}} respectively in these expressions. Case (ii) (a) A weak acid and a strong acid \left[\mathrm{H}^{+}\right] is entirely due to dissociation of strong acid (b) A weak base and a strong base \left[\mathrm{H}^{+}\right] is entirely due to dissociation of strong base Neglect the contribution of weak acid/base usually. Condition for neglecting : \text { If } \mathrm{c}_{0} concentration of strong acid, c_{1} = concentration of weak acid then neglect the contribution of weak acid if \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{a}} \leq 0.01 \mathrm{c}_{0}^{2 /} \mathrm{c}_{1} Case (iii) Two (or more) weak acids Proceed by the general method of applying two conditions (i) of electroneutrality (ii) of equilibria. The accurate treatement yields a cubic equation. Assuming that acids dissociate to \text { a negligible extent }\left[\text { i.e. } c_{0}-x \approx c_{0}\right] \quad\left[\mathrm{H}^{+}\right]=\left(\mathrm{K}_{1} \mathrm{c}_{1}+\mathrm{K}_{2} \mathrm{c}_{2}+\ldots+\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{w}}\right)^{1 / 2} Case (iv) When dissociation of water becomes significant: \text { Dissociation of water contributes significantly to }\left[\mathrm{H}^{+}\right] \text {or }\left[\mathrm{OH}^{-}\right] \text {only when for } (i) strong acids (or bases) : 10^{-8} \mathrm{M}<\mathrm{c}_{0}<10^{-6} \mathrm{M}. Neglecting ionisation of water at 10^{-6} \mathrm{M} \text { causes } 1 \% \text { error (approvable). Below } 10^{-8} \mathrm{M}, Neglecting ionisation of water at 10^{-6} \mathrm{M} \text { causes } 1 \% \text { error (approvable). } Below 10^{-8} \mathrm{M}, contribution of acid (or base) can be neglected and pH can be taken to be practically 7. Weak acids (or bases) : \text { When } \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{a}} \mathrm{c}_{0}<10^{-12} then consider dissociation of water as well. HYDROLYSIS * Salts of strong acids and strong bases do not undergo hydrolysis. * Salts of a strong acids and weak bases give an acidic solution. e.g. \mathrm{NH}_{4} \mathrm{Cl} when dissolved, it dissociates to give \mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+} ions and \mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}+\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} \quad 1 \quad \mathrm{NH}_{3}+\mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{O}^{+} \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{h}}=\left[\mathrm{NH}_{3}\right]\left[\mathrm{H}_{3} \mathrm{O}^{+}\right] /\left[\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}\right]=\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{W}} / \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{b}} of conjugate base of \mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+} Important! In general : \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{a}}(\text { of an acid }) \mathrm{xK}_{\mathrm{b}} \text { (of its conjugate base) }=\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{w}} If the degree of hydrolysis(h) is small (<<1), \quad \mathrm{h}=\sqrt{\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{h}} \mathrm{c}_{0}} Otherwise h = \frac{-\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{h}}+\sqrt{\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{h}}^{2}+4 \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{h}} \mathrm{c}_{0}}}{2 \mathrm{c}_{0}}, \quad\left[\mathrm{H}^{+}\right]=\mathrm{c}_{0} \mathrm{h} * Salts of strong base and weak acid give a basic solution (\mathrm{pH}>7) when dissolved in water, e.g. NaCN, \mathrm{CN}^{-}+\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O} \quad 1 \quad \mathrm{HCN}+\mathrm{OH}^{-} \quad\left[\mathrm{OH}^{-}\right]=\mathrm{c}_{0} \mathrm{h}, \mathrm{h}=\sqrt{\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{h}} \mathrm{c}_{0}} * Salts of weak base and weak acid Assuming degree of hydrolysis to be same for the both the ions, \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{h}}=\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{w}} /\left(\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{a}} \cdot \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{b}}\right),\left[\mathrm{H}^{+}\right]=\left[\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{a}} \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{w}} / \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{b}}\right]^{1 / 2} Note: Exact treatment of this case is difficult to solve. So use this assumption in general cases. Also, degree of anion or cation will be much higher in the case of a salt of weak acid and weak base. This is because each of them gets hydrolysed, producing \mathrm{H}^{+} \text {and } \mathrm{OH}^{-} ions. These ions combine to form water and the hydrolysis equilibrium is shifted in the forward direaction. Buffer Solutions are the solutions whose pH does not change significantly on adding a small quantity of strong base or on little dilution. These are typically made by mixing a weak acid (or base) with its conjugate base (or acid). e.g. \mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{COOH} with \mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{COONa}, \mathrm{NH}_{3}(\mathrm{aq}) \text { with } \mathrm{NH}_{4} \mathrm{Cl} \text { etc. } \text { If }\left.\mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{a}} \text { for acid (or } \mathrm{K}_{\mathrm{b}} \text { for base }\right) (or Kb for base) is not too high, we may write : Henderson’s Equation \mathrm{pH}=\mathrm{pK}_{\mathrm{a}}+\log \{[\mathrm{salt}] /[\mathrm{acid}]\} for weak acid with its conjugate base. \text { or } \mathrm{pOH}=\mathrm{pK}_{\mathrm{b}}+\log \{[\mathrm{salt}] /[\text { base }]\} for weak base with its conjugate acid. Important : For good buffer capacity, [salt] : [acid ratios should be as close to one as possible. In such a case, \mathrm{pH}=\mathrm{pK}_{\mathrm{a}} (This also is the case at midpoint of titration) Buffer capacity = (no. of moles of acid (or base) added to 1L) / (change in pH) Indicators. Indicator is a substance which indicates the point of equivalence in a titration by undergoing a change in its colour. They are weak acids or weak bases. Theory of Indicators. The ionized and unionized forms of indicators have different colours. If 90 % or more of a particular form (ionised or unionised) is present, then its colour can be distinclty seen.In general, for an indicator which is weak acid, HIn l H+ + In–, the ratio of ionized to unionized form can be determined from This roughly gives the range of indicators. Ranges for some popular indicators are Table 1 : Indicators Equivalence point. The point at which exactly equivalent amounts of acid and base have been mixed. Acid Base Titration. For choosing a suitable indicator titration curves are of great help. In a titration curve, change in pH is plotted against the volume of alkali to a given acid. Four cases arise. (a) Strong acid vs strong base. The curve is almost vertical over the pH range 3.5-10. This abrupt change corresponds to equivalence point. Any indicator suitable. (b) Weak acid vs strong base. Final solution is basic 9 at equivalence point. Vertical region (not so sharp) lies in pH range 6.5-10. So, phenolphathlene is suitable. (c) Strong acid vs weak base. Final solution acidic. Vertical point in pH range 3.8-7.2. Methyl red or methyl orange suitable. (d) Weak acid vs weak base. No sharp change in pH. No suitable indicator. Note : at midpoint of titration, \mathrm{pH}=\mathrm{pK}_{\mathrm{a}}, thus by pH measurements, Ka for weak acids (or K_{b} for weak bases) can be determined. Polyprotic acids and bases. \text { Usually } \mathrm{K}_{2}, \mathrm{K}_{3} \text { etc. can be safely neglected and only } \mathrm{K}_{1} \text { plays a significant } Solubility product \left(\mathbf{K}_{\mathbf{s p}}\right). For sparingly soluble salts (eg. \mathrm{Ag}_{2} \mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{4}) an equilibrium which exists is Precipitation. Whenever the product of concentrations (raised to appropriate power) exceeds the solubility product, precipitation occurs. Common ion effects. Suppression of dissociation by adding an ion common with dissociation products. \text { e.g. } \mathrm{Ag}^{+} \text {or } \mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{4}^{2-} in the above example. Simultaneous solubility. While solving these problems, go as per general method i.e. (i) First apply condition of electroneutrality and (ii) Apply the equilibria conditions. Limit – JEE Advanced Previous Year Questions with Solutions JEE Advanced Previous Year Questions of Math with Solutions are available at eSaral. Practicing JEE Advanced Previous Year Papers Questions of mathematics will help the JEE aspirants in realizing the question pattern as well as help in analyzing weak & strong areas. eSaral helps the students in clearing and understanding each topic in a better way. eSaral also provides complete chapter-wise notes of Class 11th and 12th both for all subjects. Besides this, eSaral also offers NCERT Solutions, Previous year questions for JEE Main and Advance, Practice questions, Test Series for JEE Main, JEE Advanced and NEET, Important questions of Physics, Chemistry, Math, and Biology and many more. Download eSaral app for free study material and video tutorials. Q. Let$\mathrm{L}=\lim _{x \rightarrow 0} \frac{\mathrm{a}-\sqrt{\mathrm{a}^{2}-\mathrm{x}^{2}}-\frac{\mathrm{x}^{2}}{4}}{\mathrm{x}^{4}}, \mathrm{a}>0 .$If$\mathrm{L}$is finite, then$:-$(A) a = 2 (B) a = 1 (C)$\mathrm{L}=\frac{1}{64}$(D)$\mathrm{L}=\frac{1}{32}$[JEE 2009, 4] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (A,C)$\mathrm{a}-\mathrm{a}\left(1-\frac{\mathrm{x}^{2}}{\mathrm{a}^{2}}\right)^{\frac{1}{2}}-\frac{\mathrm{x}^{2}}{4} \quad \mathrm{a}-\mathrm{a}\left(1-\frac{\mathrm{x}^{2}}{2 \mathrm{a}^{2}}-\frac{1}{8} \frac{\mathrm{x}^{4}}{\mathrm{a}^{4}}\right)-\frac{\mathrm{x}^{2}}{4}\mathrm{a}=2,\left(\mathrm{coefficient} \text { of } \mathrm{x}^{2}=0\right)\therefore \mathrm{L}=\frac{1}{64}$Q. If$\lim _{x \rightarrow 0}\left[1+x \ell n\left(1+b^{2}\right)\right]^{\frac{1}{x}}=2 b \sin ^{2} \theta, b>0$and$\theta \in(-\pi, \pi],$then the value of$\theta$is- [JEE 2011, 3M, –1M] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (D) Q. If$\lim _{x \rightarrow \infty}\left(\frac{x^{2}+x+1}{x+1}-a x-b\right)=4,$then$-$(A) a = 1, b = 4 (B) a = 1, b = –4] (C) a = 2, b = –3 (D) a = 2, b = 3 [JEE 2012, 3M, –1M] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (B) Q. Let$\alpha(\mathrm{a})$and$\beta(\mathrm{a})$be the roots of the equation$(\sqrt[3]{1+a}-1) x^{2}+(\sqrt{1+a}-1) x+(\sqrt[6]{1+a}-1)=0$where$a>-1 .$Then$\lim _{a \rightarrow 0^{+}} \alpha(a)$and$\lim _{a \rightarrow 0^{+}} \beta(a)$are (A)$-\frac{5}{2}$and 1 (B)$-\frac{1}{2}$and$-1$(C)$-\frac{7}{2}$and 2 (D)$-\frac{9}{2}$and 3 [JEE 2012, 3M, –1M] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (B) Q. The largest value of the non-negative integer a for which$\lim _{x \rightarrow 1}\left\{\frac{-a x+\sin (x-1)+a}{x+\sin (x-1)-1}\right\}^{\frac{1-x}{1-\sqrt{x}}}=\frac{1}{4}$is [JEE(Advanced)-2014, 3] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. 0 Q. Let$\alpha, \beta \in \mathrm{R}$be such that$\lim _{x \rightarrow 0} \frac{x^{2} \sin (\beta x)}{\alpha x-\sin x}=1 .$Then$6(\alpha+\beta)$equals [JEE(Advanced)-2016] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. 7 Q. Let$\mathrm{f}(\mathrm{x})=\frac{1-\mathrm{x}(1+|1-\mathrm{x}|)}{|1-\mathrm{x}|} \cos \left(\frac{1}{1-\mathrm{x}}\right)$for$\mathrm{x} \neq 1 .$Then [JEE(Advanced)-2017] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (A,C) Q. For any positive integer n, define$f_{\mathrm{n}}:(0, \infty) \rightarrow \square$as$f_{\mathrm{n}}(\mathrm{x})=\sum_{\mathrm{j}=1}^{\mathrm{n}} \tan ^{-1}\left(\frac{1}{1+(\mathrm{x}+\mathrm{j})(\mathrm{x}+\mathrm{j}-1)}\right)$for all$\mathrm{x} \in(0, \infty)$(Here, the inverse trigonometric function$\tan ^{-1} \mathrm{x}$assume values in$\left(-\frac{\pi}{2}, \frac{\pi}{2}\right) .$) Then, which of the following statement(s) is (are) TRUE? (A)$\sum_{j=1}^{5} \tan ^{2}\left(f_{j}(0)\right)=55$(B)$\sum_{j=1}^{10}\left(1+f_{j}^{\prime}(0)\right) \sec ^{2}\left(f_{j}(0)\right)=10$(C) For any fixed positive integer$n, \lim _{x \rightarrow \infty} \tan \left(f_{\mathrm{n}}(x)\right)=\frac{1}{n}$(D) For any fixed positive integer$n, \operatorname{limsec}_{x \rightarrow \infty} \operatorname{ec}^{2}\left(f_{\mathrm{n}}(x)\right)=1$[JEE(Advanced)-2018] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (D) Q. For each positive integer$n,$let$y_{n}=\frac{1}{n}(n+1)(n+2) \ldots(n+n)^{1 / n}$For$x \in \square,$let$[x]$be the greatest integer less than or equal to$x$. If$\lim _{n \rightarrow \infty} y_{n}=L,$then the value of$[L]$is [JEE(Advanced)-2018] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. 1 Matrices – JEE Main Previous Year Question with Solutions JEE Main Previous Year Question of Math with Solutions are available at eSaral. Practicing JEE Main Previous Year Papers Questions of mathematics will help the JEE aspirants in realizing the question pattern as well as help in analyzing weak & strong areas. eSaral helps the students in clearing and understanding each topic in a better way. eSaral is providing complete chapter-wise notes of Class 11th and 12th both for all subjects. Besides this, eSaral also offers NCERT Solutions, Previous year questions for JEE Main and Advance, Practice questions, Test Series for JEE Main, JEE Advanced and NEET, Important questions of Physics, Chemistry, Math, and Biology and many more. Download eSaral app for free study material and video tutorials. Q. Let A be the set of all 3  3 symmetric matrices all of whose entries are either 0 or 1. Five of these entries are 1 and four of them are 0. (A) The number of matrices in A is – (A) 12 (B) 6 (C) 9 (D) 3 (B) The number of matrices A in A for which the system of linear equations$A\left[\begin{array}{l}{x} \\ {y} \\ {z}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{l}{1} \\ {0} \\ {0}\end{array}\right]$has a unique solution, is – (A) less than 4 (B) at least 4 but less than 7 (C) at least 7 but less than 10 (D) at least 10 (C) The number of matrices A in A for which the system of linear equations$A\left[\begin{array}{l}{x} \\ {y} \\ {z}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{l}{1} \\ {0} \\ {0}\end{array}\right]$is inconsistent, is – (A) 0 (B) more than 2 (C) 2 (D) 1 [JEE 2009, 4+4+4] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. ( (A) A ,(b) B, (c) B ) Q. (A) The number of 3  3 matrices A whose entries are either 0 or 1 and for which the system$A\left[\begin{array}{l}{x} \\ {y} \\ {z}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{l}{1} \\ {0} \\ {0}\end{array}\right]$has exactly two distinct solutions, is (A) 0 (B)$2^{9}-1$(C) 168 (D) 2 (B) Let$\mathrm{k}$be a positive real number and let$\mathrm{A}=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}{2 \mathrm{k}-1} & {2 \sqrt{\mathrm{k}}} & {2 \sqrt{\mathrm{k}}} \\ {2 \sqrt{\mathrm{k}}} & {1} & {-2 \mathrm{k}} \\ {-2 \sqrt{\mathrm{k}}} & {2 \mathrm{k}} & {-1}\end{array}\right]$and$\mathrm{B}=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}{0} & {2 \mathrm{k}-1} & {\sqrt{\mathrm{k}}} \\ {1-2 \mathrm{k}} & {0} & {2 \sqrt{\mathrm{k}}} \\ {-\sqrt{\mathrm{k}}} & {-2 \sqrt{\mathrm{k}}} & {0}\end{array}\right]$If$\operatorname{det}(\operatorname{adj} \mathrm{A})+\operatorname{det}(\operatorname{adj} \mathrm{B})=10^{6},$then$[\mathrm{k}]$is equal to [Note : adj M denotes the adjoint of a square matrix M and [k] denotes the largest integer less than or equal to k]. (C) Let p be an odd prime number and Tp be the following set of 2  2 matrices:$\mathrm{T}_{\mathrm{p}}=\left\{\mathrm{A}=\left[\begin{array}{ll}{\mathrm{a}} & {\mathrm{b}} \\ {\mathrm{c}} & {\mathrm{a}}\end{array}\right]: \mathrm{a}, \mathrm{b}, \mathrm{c} \in\{0,1,2, \ldots \ldots, \mathrm{p}-1\}\right.$(i) The number of$A$in$T_{p}$such that$A$is either symmetric or skew symmetric or both, and det(A) divisible by p is – (A)$(\mathrm{p}-1)^{2}$(B) 2 (p – 1) (C)$(p-1)^{2}+1$(D) 2p –1 (ii) The number of$A$in$T_{p}$such that the trace of$A$is not divisible by$p$but det (A) is divisible by p is – [Note : The trace of a matrix is the sum of its diagonal entries.] (A)$(p-1)\left(p^{2}-p+1\right)$(B)$\mathrm{p}^{3}-(\mathrm{p}-1)^{2}$(C)$(p-1)^{2}$(D)$(p-1)\left(p^{2}-2\right)$(iii) The number of$A$in$T_{p}$such that$\operatorname{det}(A)$is not divisible by$p$is – (A)$2 p^{2}$(B)$\mathrm{p}^{3}-5 \mathrm{p}$(C)$\mathrm{p}^{3}-3 \mathrm{p}$(D)$\mathrm{p}^{3}-\mathrm{p}^{2}$[JEE 2010, 3+3+3+3+3] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. ($(a) A,(b) 4 ;(c)(i) D,(i i) C,(\text { iii }) D$) For the matrix$(6),(9),(10),(11)$the system of linear equation is incosistent. (A) The given matrix system is a linear system in$\mathrm{x}, \mathrm{y}, \mathrm{z},$hence it can have either a unique solution or no-solution or infinitely many solutions. It can never have exactly two distinct solutions. Q. Let$\mathrm{M}$and$\mathrm{N}$be two$3 \times 3$non-singular skew-symmetric matrices such that$\mathrm{MN}=\mathrm{NM}$. If$\mathrm{P}^{\mathrm{T}}$denotes the transpose of$\mathrm{P},$then$\mathrm{M}^{2} \mathrm{N}^{2}\left(\mathrm{M}^{\mathrm{T}} \mathrm{N}\right)^{-1}\left(\mathrm{MN}^{-1}\right)^{\mathrm{T}}$is equal to – (A)$\mathbf{M}^{2}$(B)$-N^{2}$(C)$-M^{2}$(D) MN [JEE 2011, 4] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (Bonus) (Comment : Although 3 3 skew symmetric matrices can never be non-singular. Therefore the information given in question is wrong. Now if we consider only non singular skew symmetric matrices M & N, then the solution is-) Q. Let$\omega \neq 1$be a cube root of unity and$S$be the set of all non-singular matrices of the form$\left[\begin{array}{lll}{1} & {a} & {b} \\ {\omega} & {1} & {c} \\ {\omega^{2}} & {\omega} & {1}\end{array}\right],$where each of a,b and$c$is either$\omega$or$\omega^{2} .$Then the number of distinct matrices in the set$\mathrm{S}$is- (A) 2 (B) 6 (C) 4 (D) 8 [JEE 2011, 3, (–1)] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (A) Q. Let M be 3  3 matrix satisfying$\mathbf{M}\left[\begin{array}{l}{0} \\ {1} \\ {0}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{r}{-1} \\ {2} \\ {3}\end{array}\right], \mathbf{M}\left[\begin{array}{c}{1} \\ {-1} \\ {0}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{r}{1} \\ {1} \\ {-1}\end{array}\right]$and$\mathbf{M}\left[\begin{array}{l}{1} \\ {1} \\ {1}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{c}{0} \\ {0} \\ {12}\end{array}\right]$Then the sum of the diagonal entries of M is [JEE 2011, 4] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. 9 Q. Let$\mathrm{P}=\left[\mathrm{a}_{\mathrm{ij}}\right]$be a$3 \times 3$matrix and let$\mathrm{Q}=\left[\mathrm{b}_{\mathrm{ij}}\right],$where$\mathrm{b}_{\mathrm{ij}}=2^{\mathrm{i}+\mathrm{j}} \mathrm{a}_{\mathrm{ij}}$for$1 \leq \mathrm{i}, \mathrm{j} \leq 3$If the determinant of$\mathrm{P}$is$2,$then the determinant of the matrix$\mathrm{Q}$is – (A)$2^{10}$(B)$2^{11}$(C)$2^{12}(D) 2^{13}$[JEE 2011, 4] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (D) Q. If$\mathrm{P}$is a$3 \times 3$matrix such that$\mathrm{P}^{\mathrm{T}}=2 \mathrm{P}+\mathrm{I},$where$\mathrm{P}^{\mathrm{T}}$is the transpose of$\mathrm{P}$and$\mathrm{I}$is the$3 \times 3 \times 3$identity matrix, then there exists a column matrix$\mathrm{X}=\left[\begin{array}{l}{\mathrm{x}} \\ {\mathrm{y}} \\ {\mathrm{z}}\end{array}\right] \neq\left[\begin{array}{l}{0} \\ {0} \\ {0}\end{array}\right]$such that (A)$\mathrm{PX}=\left[\begin{array}{l}{0} \\ {0} \\ {0}\end{array}\right]$(B) PX = X (C) PX = 2X (D) PX = –X [JEE 2012, 3M, –1M] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (D)$\mathrm{P}^{\mathrm{T}}=2 \mathrm{P}+\mathrm{I}\Rightarrow \mathrm{P}=2 \mathrm{P}^{\mathrm{T}}+\mathrm{I}\Rightarrow \mathrm{P}=2(2 \mathrm{P}+\mathrm{I})+\mathrm{I}\Rightarrow P=4 P+3 I\Rightarrow P=-I\Rightarrow \mathrm{PX}=-\mathrm{X}$Q. If the adjoint of a$3 \times 3$matrix$\mathrm{P}$is$\left[\begin{array}{ccc}{1} & {4} & {4} \\ {2} & {1} & {7} \\ {1} & {1} & {3}\end{array}\right],$then the possible value(s) of the determinant of$\mathrm{P}$is (are) (A) –2 (B) –1 (C) 1 (D) 2 [JEE 2012, 4M] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (A,D) Q. For 3  3 matrices M and N, which of the following statement(s) is (are) NOT correct ? (A)$\mathbf{N}^{\mathrm{T}} \mathbf{M}$N is symmetric or skew symmetric, according as M is symmetric or skew symmetric (B) MN – NM is skew symmetric for all symmetric matrices M and N (C) MN is symmetric for all symmetric matrices M and N (D) (adj M) (adj N) = adj (M N) for all invertible matrices M and N [JEE-Advanced 2013, 4, (–1)] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (C,D) (A)$\mathrm{B}=\mathrm{N}^{\mathrm{T}} \mathrm{MN}\mathrm{B}^{\mathrm{T}}=\left(\mathrm{N}^{\mathrm{T}} \mathrm{MN}\right)^{\mathrm{T}}=\mathrm{N}^{\mathrm{T}} \mathrm{M}^{\mathrm{T}} \mathrm{N}$Now it depands on$\mathrm{M}$if$\mathrm{M}=\mathrm{M}^{\mathrm{T}}$So A is true$(\mathrm{B}) \mathrm{B}=(\mathrm{MN}-\mathrm{NM})\mathrm{B}=(\mathrm{MN}-\mathrm{NM})^{\mathrm{T}}=\mathbf{N}^{\mathrm{T}} \mathbf{M}^{\mathrm{T}}-\mathbf{M}^{\mathrm{N}} \mathbf{N}^{\mathrm{T}}=\mathrm{NM}-\mathrm{MN}=-(\mathrm{B})$Skew symmetric B is ture$(\mathrm{C}) \mathrm{B}=\mathrm{MN}\mathrm{B}^{\mathrm{T}}=(\mathrm{MN})^{\mathrm{T}}\mathrm{B}^{\mathrm{T}}=\mathrm{N}^{\mathrm{T}} \mathrm{M}^{\mathrm{T}}\mathrm{B}^{\mathrm{T}}=\mathrm{NM} \neq \mathrm{B}$so wrong statement (D) Obviousely wrong because adj$(\mathrm{BA})=\operatorname{adj}(\mathrm{A}) \cdot \operatorname{adJ}(\mathrm{B})$Q. Let M be a 2  2 symmetric matrix with integer entries. Then M is invertible if (A) the first column of M is the transpose of the second row of M (B) the second row of M is the transpose of the first column of M (C) M is a diagonal matrix with nonzero entries in the main diagonal (D) the product of entries in the main diagonal of M is not the square of an integer [JEE(Advanced)-2014, 3] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (C,D) Q. Let$\mathrm{M}$and$\mathrm{N}$be two$3 \times 3$matrices such that$\mathrm{MN}=\mathrm{NM}$. Further, if$\mathrm{M} \neq \mathrm{N}^{2}$and$\mathrm{M}^{2}=\mathrm{N}^{4},$then (A) determinant of$\left(\mathrm{M}^{2}+\mathrm{MN}^{2}\right)$is 0 (B) there is a$3 \times 3$non-zero matrix$\mathrm{U}$such that$\left(\mathrm{M}^{2}+\mathrm{MN}^{2}\right) \mathrm{U}$is zero Matrix (C) determinant of$\left(\mathrm{M}^{2}+\mathrm{MN}^{2}\right) \geq 1$(D) for a$3 \times 3$matrix$\mathrm{U},$if$\left(\mathrm{M}^{2}+\mathrm{MN}^{2}\right)$U equals the zero matrix then$\mathrm{U}$is the zero matrix [JEE(Advanced)-2014, 3] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (A,B)$\mathrm{M}^{2}=\mathrm{N}^{4}\mathrm{M}^{2}=\mathrm{N}^{4}=0(\therefore \mathrm{MN}=\mathrm{NM})\left(\mathrm{M}+\mathrm{N}^{2}\right)\left(\mathrm{M}-\mathrm{N}^{2}\right)=0$So$\left(\mathrm{M}+\mathrm{N}^{2}\right)=0\mathrm{Now} \mathrm{M} \cdot\left(\mathrm{M}+\mathrm{N}^{2}\right)=0\mathrm{M}^{2}+\mathrm{MN}^{2}=0\left|\mathrm{M}^{2}+\mathrm{MN}^{2}\right|=0$Option A is right So we know$A \cdot B=0$when$\mathrm{B} \neq 0\Rightarrow(\mathrm{A})=0$So in$\mathrm{U}\left(\mathrm{M}^{2}+\mathrm{MN}^{2}\right) \mathrm{U}=0$Because$\mathrm{U} \neq 0$But$\left|\mathrm{M}^{2}+\mathrm{MN}^{2}\right|=0$So option$\mathrm{B}$is also right Q. Let X and Y be two arbitrary, 3  3, non-zero, skew-symmetric matrices and Z be an arbitrary 3 × 3, non-zero, symmetric matrix. Then which of the following matrices is (are) skew symmetric ? (A)$\mathrm{Y}^{3} \mathrm{Z}^{4}-\mathrm{Z}^{4} \mathrm{Y}^{3}$(B)$\mathrm{X}^{44}+\mathrm{Y}^{44}$(C)$\mathrm{X}^{4} \mathrm{Z}^{3}-\mathrm{Z}^{3} \mathrm{X}^{4}$(D)$\mathrm{X}^{23}+\mathrm{Y}^{23}$[JEE(Advanced)-2015, 4M, –2M] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (C,D)$\mathrm{x}^{\mathrm{T}}=-\mathrm{x}, \mathrm{y}^{\mathrm{T}}=-\mathrm{y}, \mathrm{z}^{\mathrm{T}}=\mathrm{z}$(A) Let$P=y^{3} z^{4}-z^{4} y^{3}\mathrm{P}^{\mathrm{T}}=\left(\mathrm{y}^{3} \mathrm{z}^{4}\right)^{\mathrm{T}}-\left(\mathrm{z}^{4} \mathrm{y}^{3}\right)^{\mathrm{T}}=-z^{4} y^{3}+y^{3} z^{4}=P \Rightarrow$symmetric (B)$\quad$Let$\mathrm{P}=\mathrm{x}^{44}+\mathrm{y}^{44}\mathrm{P}^{\mathrm{T}}=\left(\mathrm{X}^{44}\right)^{\mathrm{T}}+\left(\mathrm{y}^{44}\right)^{\mathrm{T}}=\mathrm{P} \Rightarrow$symmetric (C) Let$P=x^{4} z^{3}-z^{3} x^{4}\mathrm{P}^{\mathrm{T}}=\left(\mathrm{z}^{3}\right)^{\mathrm{T}}\left(\mathrm{x}^{4}\right)^{\mathrm{T}}-\left(\mathrm{x}^{4}\right)^{\mathrm{T}}\left(\mathrm{z}^{3}\right)^{\mathrm{T}}=\mathrm{z}^{3} \mathrm{x}^{4}-\mathrm{x}^{4} \mathrm{z}^{3}=-\mathrm{P} \Rightarrow$skew symmetric (D) Let$P=x^{23}+y^{23}\mathrm{P}^{\mathrm{T}}=-\mathrm{x}^{23}-\mathrm{y}^{23}=-\mathrm{P} \Rightarrow$skew symmetric Q. Let$P=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}{3} & {-1} & {-2} \\ {2} & {0} & {\alpha} \\ {3} & {-5} & {0}\end{array}\right],$where$\alpha \in R,$Suppose$Q=\left[q_{i j}\right]$is a matrix such that$P Q=k I$where$\mathrm{k} \in \mathrm{R}, \mathrm{k} \neq 0$and$\mathrm{I}$is the identity matrix of order$3 .$If$\mathrm{q}_{23}=-\frac{\mathrm{k}}{8}$and$\operatorname{det}(\mathrm{Q})=\frac{\mathrm{k}^{2}}{2}$then- (A)  = 0, k = 8 (B)$4 \alpha-k+8=0$(C)$\operatorname{det}(\operatorname{Padj}(\mathrm{Q}))=2^{9}$(D) det(Qadj(P)) =$2^{13}$[JEE(Advanced)-2016] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (B,C)$\mathrm{PQ}=\mathrm{kI}|\mathrm{P}| \cdot|\mathrm{Q}|=\mathrm{k}^{3} \Rightarrow|\mathrm{P}|=2 \mathrm{k} \neq 0 \Rightarrow \mathrm{P}$is an invertible matrix$\because \mathrm{PQ}=\mathrm{kI}\therefore \mathrm{Q}=\mathrm{k} \mathrm{P}^{-1} \mathrm{I}\therefore \mathrm{Q}=\frac{\mathrm{adj.P}}{2}\because \mathrm{q}_{23}=-\frac{\mathrm{k}}{8}\therefore \frac{-(3 \alpha+4)}{2}=-\frac{k}{8} \Rightarrow k=4\therefore|\mathrm{P}|=2 \mathrm{k} \Rightarrow \mathrm{k}=10+6 \alpha \ldots(\mathrm{i})$Put value of$k$in (i).. we get$\alpha=-1\therefore 4 \alpha-k+8=0\& \operatorname{det}(\mathrm{P}(\mathrm{adj} . \mathrm{Q}))=|\mathrm{P}||\operatorname{adj} . \mathrm{Q}|=2 \mathrm{k} \cdot\left(\frac{\mathrm{k}^{2}}{2}\right)^{2}=\frac{\mathrm{k}^{5}}{2}=2^{9}$Q. Let$P=\left[\begin{array}{lll}{1} & {0} & {0} \\ {4} & {1} & {0} \\ {16} & {4} & {1}\end{array}\right]$and$I$be the identity matrix of order$3 .$If$Q=\left[q_{i j}\right]$is a matrix such that$\mathrm{P}^{50}-\mathrm{Q}=\mathrm{I},$then$\frac{\mathrm{q}_{31}+\mathrm{q}_{32}}{\mathrm{q}_{21}}$equals (A) 52 (B) 103 (C) 201 (D) 205 [JEE(Advanced)-2016] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (A) Q. Which of the following is(are) NOT the square of a 3  3 matrix with real entries ? [JEE(Advanced)-2017] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (A,B) Q. How many$3 \times 3$matrices$\mathrm{M}$with entries from$\{0,1,2\}$are there, for which the sum of the diagonal entries of$\mathrm{M}^{\mathrm{T}} \mathrm{M}$is$5 ?$(A) 198 (B) 126 (C) 135 (D) 16 [JEE(Advanced)-2017] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (A) Q. Let S be the of all column matrices$\left[\begin{array}{l}{b_{1}} \\ {b_{2}} \\ {b_{3}}\end{array}\right]$such that$b_{1}, b_{2}, b_{3} \in \square$and the system of equations (in real variables)$-x+2 y+5 z=b_{1}2 x-4 y+3 z=b_{2}x-2 y+2 z=b_{3}$has at least one solution. Then, which of the following system(s) (in real variables) has (have) at least one solution of each$\left[\begin{array}{l}{b_{1}} \\ {b_{2}} \\ {b_{3}}\end{array}\right] \in S ?$(A)$\mathrm{x}+2 \mathrm{y}+3 \mathrm{z}=\mathrm{b}_{1}, 4 \mathrm{y}+5 \mathrm{z}=\mathrm{b}_{2}$and$\mathrm{x}+2 \mathrm{y}+6 \mathrm{z}=\mathrm{b}_{3}$(B)$x+y+3 z=b_{1}, 5 x+2 y+6 z=b_{2}$and$-2 x-y-3 z=b_{3}$(C)$-\mathrm{x}+2 \mathrm{y}-5 \mathrm{z}=\mathrm{b}_{1}, 2 \mathrm{x}-4 \mathrm{y}+10 \mathrm{z}=\mathrm{b}_{2}$and$\mathrm{x}-2 \mathrm{y}+5 \mathrm{z}=\mathrm{b}_{3}$(D)$x+2 y+5 z=b_{1}, 2 x+3 z=b_{2}$and$x+4 y-5 z=b_{3}$[JEE(Advanced)-2018, 4(–2)] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (A,C,D) Chemistry Topic-wise JEE Main Previous Year Question with Solutions Practicing JEE Main previous Year Question Papers will help you in many ways in your Exam preparation. It will help you to boost your confidence level. Students can check where they are lagging through practicing these previous year question papers. Here you will get the JEE-Mains previous year question papers from year 2009 to 2019 along with solutions. These JEE Main previous Year Question for Chemistry plays an important role in IIT-JEE preparation. We are providing IIT-JEE Mains Previous Year Question Papers with detailed Solution. We have tried our best to provide you last 10 years question with solutions. This set of question papers serves as a very important source to revise the important topics and gain an understanding into the pattern of questions asked in previous years. Practicing these papers will positively help students to gain confidence over their learning. The benefits of solving IIT-JEE previous years papers is that aspirants get to know the type of questions asked in the JEE exam. JEE aspirants can evaluate their preparation after finishing the entire syllabus, topics and chapters. They can get the experience of giving real exam while solving a past year JEE question paper to become confident for the upcoming JEE exam. While preparing for the IIT-JEE exam, aspirants should be aware about the question paper structure and the format of questions to be asked in this exam. This will help to make an effective preparation strategy for the exam. JEE Main Previous Year Question Papers are the best resources to prepare for exam. This will help an individual to understand the exam pattern of JEE. This will also enhance your level of preparation. JEE aspirants must solve multiple sample papers and analyse their performances in order to recognize their strengths and weaknesses. Here are the Chemistry Topic-wise Previous year question for JEE Main: In the last few months of JEE Main 2020, candidates should go through the sample papers and mock tests to test their preparation level and get hands-on practice in solving questions. One of the most effective ways to prepare for the JEE Advanced, after the IIT-JEE Previous Year Papers, is to take a JEE mock test. At eSaral we provide almost all types of test series which includes topic wise tests, full length mock tests, etc. ### Click Here to Download Math Topic-wise JEE Main Previous Year Question with Solutions ### Click Here to Download Physics Topic-wise JEE Main Previous Year Question with Solutions ### Click Here to Download JEE Advanced Previous Year Questions with solutions. We believe that your preparation for the JEE Mains Exam will be simple as long as an organized and consistent plan is followed. Solving the JEE Main Previous Year Papers will absolutely help you in your JEE Mains Exam preparation. As a result, no stone has been left unturned by eSaral to ensure that these IIT-JEE mock tests are similar to the actual exam. For free study material and video tutorials, Download eSaral app Chapter 1- 13 Mathematics Notes for Class 12 and IIT JEE eSaral brings you detailed maths notes for class 12. eSaral provides a series of detailed chapter wise notes for all the Subjects of class 11th and 12th. These notes will also help you in your IIT JEE preparations. We hope Maths notes for class 12 will help you understand the important topics and remember the key points for the exam point of view. Below are the direct links for detailed chapter-wise12th Maths study material. Relation and Functions Inverse Trigonometric Function Matrices Determinants Continuity and Differentiability Application of Derivatives Integrals Application of Integrals Differential Equation Vector Algebra Three Dimension Geometry Linear Programming Probability Mathematics Notes for Class 11 Install eSaral App to learn from video tutorials by Top IITian faculties of Kota. Our eSaral application contains around 5,00,000 questions to practice for IIT JEE, NEET and Board Exams. d & f – block – JEE Main Previous Year Questions with Solutions JEE Main Previous Year Papers Questions of Chemistry with Solutions are available at eSaral. Practicing JEE Main chapter wise questions of Chemistry will help the JEE aspirants in realizing the question pattern as well as help in analyzing weak & strong areas. Simulator Previous Years AIEEE/JEE Main Question Q. In context with the transition elements, which of the following statements is incorrect? (1) In the highest oxidation states of the first five transition elements (Sc to Mn), all the 4s and 3d electrons are used for bonding. (2) Once the d5 configuration is exceeded, the tendency to involve all the 3d electrons in bonding decreases. (3) In addition to the normal oxidation states, the zero oxidation state is also shown by these elements in complexes. (4) In the highest oxidation states, the transition metal show basic character and form cationic complexes. [AIEEE-2009] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (4) Q. Iron exhibits +2 and +3 oxidation states. Which of the following statements about iron is incorrect ? (1) Ferrous compounds are more easily hydrolysed than the corresponding ferric compounds. (2) Ferrous oxide is more basic in nature than the ferric oxide. (3) Ferrous compounds are relatively more ionic than the corresponding ferric compounds. (4) Ferrous compounds are less volatile than the corresponding ferric compounds. [AIEEE-2012] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (1) Q. Consider the following reaction :$\mathrm{xMnO}_{4}^{-}+\mathrm{yC}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{4}^{2-}+\mathrm{zH}^{+} \rightarrow \mathrm{xMn}^{2+}+2 \mathrm{yCO}_{2}+\frac{\mathrm{Z}}{2} \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$The values of x, y and z in the reaction are respectively :- (1) 5,2 and 16 (2) 2,5 and 8 (3) 2, 5 and 16 (4) 5,2 and 8 [JEE MAIN-2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3) Q. Which of the following arrangements does not represent the correct order of the property stated against it ? (1)$\mathrm{V}^{2+}<\mathrm{Cr}^{2+}<\mathrm{Mn}^{2}<\mathrm{Fe}^{2+}$: paramagnetic behaviour (2)$\mathrm{Ni}^{2+}<\mathrm{Co}^{2+}<\mathrm{Fe}^{2+}<\mathrm{Mn}^{2+}$: ionic size (3)$\mathrm{Co}^{3+}<\mathrm{Fe}^{3+}<\mathrm{Cr}^{3+}<\mathrm{Sc}^{3+}$: stability in aqueous solution (4)$\mathrm{Sc}<\mathrm{Ti}<\mathrm{Cr}<$Mn : number of oxidation states [JEE MAIN-2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (1) Q. Potassium dichromate when heated with concentrated sulphuric acid and a soluble chloride, gives brown – red vapours of: (1)$\mathrm{CrO}_{3}$(2)$\mathrm{Cr}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{3}$(3)$\mathrm{CrCl}_{3}$(4)$\mathrm{CrO}_{2} \mathrm{Cl}_{2}$[JEE MAIN-2013, Online] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (4) Explanation.$\mathrm{K}_{2} \mathrm{Cr}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{7}+6 \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{SO}_{4}+4 \mathrm{NaCl} \longrightarrow 2 \mathrm{KHSO}_{4}+4 \mathrm{NaHSO}_{4}+2 \mathrm{CrO}_{2} \mathrm{Cl}_{2}+3 \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$Q. The element with which of the following outer electron configuration may exhibit the largest number of oxidation states in its compounds : (1)$3 \mathrm{d}^{7} 4 \mathrm{s}^{2}$(2)$3 \mathrm{d}^{8} 4 \mathrm{s}^{2}$( 3) (3)$3 \mathrm{d}^{5} 4 \mathrm{s}^{2}$(4) (4)$3 \mathrm{d}^{6} 4 \mathrm{S}^{2}$[JEE MAIN-2013, Online] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3) Explanation$\mathrm{Mn} \longrightarrow \mathrm{Mn}^{+7}$Q. When a small amount of$\mathrm{KMnO}_{4}$is added to concentrated$\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{SO}_{4}$a green oily compound is obtained which is highly explosive in nature. Compound may be: (1)$\mathrm{Mn}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{3}$(2) MnSO$_{4}$(3)$\mathrm{Mn}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{7}$( 4)$\mathrm{MnO}_{2}$[JEE MAIN-2013, Online] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3) Explanation Q. Which series of reactions correctly represents chemical relations related to iron and its compound? [JEE MAIN-2014] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2) Q. The equation which is balanced and represents the correct product (s) is: [JEE MAIN-2014] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (4) Q. Which of the following is not formed when$\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{S}$reacts with acidic$\mathrm{K}_{2} \mathrm{Cr}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{7}$solution ? ( 1)$\mathrm{K}_{2} \mathrm{SO}_{4}$(2)$\mathrm{Cr}_{2}\left(\mathrm{SO}_{4}\right)_{3}$(3)$\mathrm{S}$(4)$\mathrm{CrSO}_{4}$[JEE MAIN-2014, Online] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (4) Q. Copper becomes green when exposed to moist air for a long period. This is due to :- (1) the formation of a layer of cupric oxide on the surface of copper. (2) the formation of basic copper sulphate layer on the surface of the metal (3) the formation of a layer of cupric hydroxide on the surface of copper. (4) the formation of a layer of basic carbonate of copper on the surface of copper. [JEE MAIN-2014, Online] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (4) Q. Which one of the following exhibits the largest number of oxidation states ? (1) Mn(25) (2) V(23) (3) Cr (24) (4) Ti (22) [JEE MAIN-2014, Online] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (1) Q. How many electrons are involved in the following redox reaction?$\mathrm{Cr}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{7}^{2-}+\mathrm{Fe}^{2+}+\mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{4}^{2-} \rightarrow \mathrm{Cr}^{3+}+\mathrm{Fe}^{3+}+\mathrm{CO}_{2}$(Unbalanced) (1) 3 (2) 4 (3) 5 (4) 6 [JEE MAINS-2014,Online] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (4) Q. Amongst the following, identify the species with an atom in +6 oxidation state: (1)$\left[\mathrm{MnO}_{4}\right]^{-}$(2)$\left[\mathrm{Cr}(\mathrm{CN})_{6}\right]^{3-}$(3)$\mathrm{Cr}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{3}$(4)$\mathrm{CrO}_{2} \mathrm{Cl}_{2}$[JEE MAIN-2014, Online] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (4) Q. Match the catalysts to the correct processes :- (1) A-ii, B-iii, C-iv, D-i (2) A-iii, B-i, C-ii, D-iv (3) A-iii, B-ii, C-iv, D-i (4) A-ii, B-i, C-iv, D-iii [JEE MAIN-2015] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (4) Q. Which of the following statements is false :- (1) has a Cr – O – Cr bond (2) is tetrahedral in shape (3)$\mathrm{Na}_{2} \mathrm{Cr}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{7}$is a primary standard in volumetry (4)$\mathrm{Na}_{2} \mathrm{Cr}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{7}$is less soluble than$\mathrm{K}_{2} \mathrm{Cr}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{7}$[JEE MAIN-2015, Online] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3) src=”https://www.esaral.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/08/CB-3-31.jpg” alt=”” width=”1275″ height=”1650″ /> Hydrogen – JEE Main Previous Year Questions with Solutions JEE Main Previous Year Papers Questions of Chemistry With Solutions are available at eSaral. Simulator Previous Years AIEEE/JEE Mains Questions Q. Very pure hydrogen (99.9%) can be made by which of the following processes? (1) Reaction of salt like hydrides with water (2) Reaction of methane with steam (3) Mixing natural hydrocarbons of high molecular weight (4) Electrolysis of water [AIEEE 2012] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (4) Very pure hydrogen (99.9%) can be made by electrolysis of water. Q. In which of the following reaction$\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{2}$acts as a reducing agent ? (1) (1), (3) (2) (2), (4) (3) (1), (2) (4) (3), (4) [JEE(Main) 2014] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2) When$\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{2}$act as reducing agent then it evolve. Q. Which of the following statements about$\mathrm{Na}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{2}$is not correct ? (1)$\mathrm{Na}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{2}$oxidises$\mathrm{Cr}^{3+}$to$\mathrm{CrO}_{4}^{2-}$in acid medium (2) It is diamagnetic in nature (3) It is the super oxide of sodium (4) It is a derivative of$\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{2}$[JEE(Main) 2014] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3)$\mathrm{Na}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{2}$is peroxide of sodium Q. Hydrogen peroxide acts both as an oxidising and as a reducing agent depending upon the nature of the reacting species. In which of the following cases$\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{2}$acts as a reducing agent in acid medium ? :- (1)$\mathrm{MnO}_{4}^{-}$(2)$\mathrm{SO}_{3}^{2-}$(3) KI (4)$\mathrm{Cr}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{7}^{2-}$[JEE(Main)Online-2014] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (1) Q. Permanent hardness in water cannot be cured by: (1) Treatment with washing soda (2) Calgon’s method (3) Boiling (4) Ion exchange method [JEE(Main)Online-2015] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3) Permanent hardness in water cannot cured by boiling of water Q. From the following statements regarding H2O2, choose the incorrect statement : (1) It has to be stored in plastic or wax lined glass bottles in dark (2) It has to be kept away from dust (3) It can act only as an oxidizing agent (4) It decomposes on exposure to light [JEE(Main)Online-2015] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3)$\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{2}$can act as oxidizing as well as reducing agent depend on condition. Q. Hydrogen peroxide oxidises$\left[\mathrm{Fe}(\mathrm{CN})_{6}\right]^{4-}$to$\left[\mathrm{Fe}(\mathrm{CN})_{6}\right]^{3-}$in acidic medium but reduces$\left[\mathrm{Fe}(\mathrm{CN})_{6}\right]^{3-}$to$\left[\mathrm{Fe}(\mathrm{CN})_{6}\right]^{4-}$in alkaline medium. The other products formed are, respectively : [JEE(Main)Online-2018] (1)$\left(\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}+\mathrm{O}_{2}\right)$and$\left(\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}+\mathrm{OH}^{-}\right)$(2)$\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$and$\left(\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}+\mathrm{O}_{2}\right)$(3)$\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$and$\left(\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}+\mathrm{OH}^{-}\right)$(4)$\left(\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}+\mathrm{O}_{2}\right)$and$\mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}$Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2) Chemical Bonding – JEE Main Previous Year Questions with Solutions JEE Main Previous Year Papers Questions of Chemistry With Solutions are available at eSaral. Simulator Previous Years AIEEE/JEE Mains Questions Q. The bond dissociation energy of B–F in$\mathrm{BF}_{3}$is 646 kJ$\mathrm{mol}^{-1}$whereas that of C–F in$\mathrm{CF}_{4}$is 515 kJ mol–1. The correct reason for higher B–F bond dissociation energy as compared to that of C–F is :- (1) Significant$\mathrm{p} \pi-\mathrm{p} \pi$interaction between B and F in$\mathrm{BF}_{3}$whereas there is not possibility of such interaction between C and F in$\mathrm{CF}_{4}$. (2) Lower degree of p – p interaction between B and F in$\mathrm{BF}_{3}$than that between C and F in$\mathrm{CF}_{4}$(3)Smaller size of B-atom as compared to that of C-atom (4) Stronger  bond between B and F in$\mathrm{BF}_{3}$as compared to that between C and F in$\mathrm{CF}_{4}$[AIEEE-2009] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (1) Due to back bonding in BF3 molecule all B–F bond having partial double bond character. Q. Using MO theory predict which of the following species has the shortest bond length ? (1)$\mathrm{o}_{2}^{-}$(2)$\mathrm{O}_{2}^{2-}$(3)$\mathrm{O}_{2}^{2+}$(4)$\mathrm{O}_{2}^{+}$[AIEEE-2009] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3) Q. The hybridisation of orbitals of N atom in$\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}, \mathrm{NO}_{2}^{+}$and$\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}$are respectively:- [AIEEE-2011] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (4) Q. The structure of$\mathrm{IF}_{7}$is :- (1) octahedral (2) pentagonal bipyramid (3) square pyramid (4) trigonal bipyramid [AIEEE-2011] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2) Q. Among the following the maximum covalent character is shown by the compound :- (1)$\mathrm{AlCl}_{3}$(2)$\mathrm{MgCl}_{2}$(3) FeCl$_{2}$(4)$\mathrm{SnCl}_{2}$[AIEEE-2011] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (1)$\mathrm{Al}^{+3}$having highest polarizing power than other : having greater covalent character Q. Which of the following has maximum number of lone pairs associated with Xe (1)$\mathrm{XeO}_{3}$(2)$\mathrm{XeF}_{4}$(3) XeF$_{6}$(4)$\mathrm{XeF}_{2}$[AIEEE-2011] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (4) Q. The number of types of bonds between two carbon atoms in calcium carbide is :- (1) One sigma, two pi (2) One sigma, one pi (3) Two sigma, one pi (4) Two sigma, two pi [AIEEE-2011] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (1)$\mathrm{Ca}^{+2}(\mathrm{C} \equiv \mathrm{C})^{2-}$Q. The molecule having smallest bond angle is :- (1)$\mathrm{PCl}_{3}$(2)$\mathrm{NCl}_{3}$(4)$\mathrm{SbCl}_{3}$[AIEEE-2012] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (4) Bond angle order$\mathrm{NCl}_{3}>\mathrm{PCl}_{3}>\mathrm{AsCl}_{3}>\mathrm{SbCl}_{3}$Q. In which of the following pairs the two species are not isostructural ? (1)$\mathrm{AIF}_{6}^{3-}$and$\mathrm{SF}_{6}$(3)$\mathrm{CO}_{3}^{2-}$and$\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}$(3)$\mathrm{PCl}_{4}^{+}$and$\mathrm{SiCl}_{4}$(4)$\mathrm{PF}_{5}$and$\mathrm{BrF}_{5}$[AIEEE-2012] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (4) Q. The number of S–S bonds in$\mathrm{SO}_{3}, \mathrm{S}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{3}^{2-}, \mathrm{S}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{6}^{2-}$and$\mathrm{S}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{8}^{2-}$respectively are :- (1) 1, 0, 1, 0 (2) 0, 1, 1, 0 (3) 1, 0, 0, 1 (4) 0, 1, 0, 1 [JEE-MAINS(Online) 2012] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2) Q. Dipole moment is shown by :- (1) trans-2, 3-dichloro- 2-butene (2) 1, 2-dichlorobenzene (3) 1, 4-dichlorobenzene (4) trans-1, 2-dinitroethene [JEE-MAINS(Online) 2012] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2) Q. Among the following species which two have trigonal bipyramidal shape ? [JEE-MAINS(Online) 2012] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (Bonus) Q. Among the following, the species having the smallest bond is :- (1) NO (2)$\mathrm{NO}^{+}$(3)$\mathrm{O}_{2}$(4)$\mathrm{NO}^{-}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2012] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2) Q. Based on lattice energy and other considerations, which one of the following alkali metal chloride is expected to have the highest melting point ? (1) RbCl (2) LiCl (3) KCl (4) NaCl [JEE-MAINS(Online) 2012] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (4) Highest melting is of NaCl Q. Which of the following has the square planar structure :- (1)$\mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}$(2)$\mathrm{CCl}_{4}$(3)$\mathrm{XeF}_{4}$(4)$\mathrm{BF}_{4}^{-}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2012] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3) Hybridisation$\mathrm{Sp}^{3} \mathrm{d}^{2}$Shape – square planar Q. The compound of Xenon with zero dipole moment is :- (1)$\mathrm{XeO}_{3}$(2)$\mathrm{XeO}_{2}$(3)$\mathrm{XeF}_{4}$(4)$\mathrm{XeOF}_{4}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2012] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3) Q. Among the following the molecule with the lowest dipole moment is :- (1)$\mathrm{CHCl}_{3}$(2)$\mathrm{CH}_{2} \mathrm{Cl}_{2}$(3)$\mathrm{CCl}_{4}$(4)$\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{Cl}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2012] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3)$\mathrm{CCl}_{4}<\mathrm{CHCl}_{3}<\mathrm{CH}_{2} \mathrm{Cl}_{2}<\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{Cl}(\text { Dipolar moment })$Q. The formation of molecular complex$\mathrm{BF}_{3}-\mathrm{NH}_{3}$results in a change in hybridisation of boron (1) from$\operatorname{sp}^{3}$to$\mathrm{sp}^{3} \mathrm{d}$(2) from$\operatorname{sp}^{2}$to$\mathrm{dsp}^{2}$(3) from$\operatorname{sp}^{3}$to$\mathrm{sp}^{2}$(4) from$\operatorname{sp}^{2}$to$\mathrm{sp}^{3}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2012] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (4) Q. Among the following chloro-compound having the lowest dipole moment is :- (1)$\mathrm{CH}_{2} \mathrm{Cl}_{2}$(2)$\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{Cl}$(3) (4) Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (1)$\mathrm{CH}_{2} \mathrm{Cl}_{2}$has lowest dipole moment Q. Which one of the following molecules is expected to exhibit diamagnetic behaviour ? (1)$\mathrm{C}_{2}$(2)$\mathrm{N}_{2}$(3)$\mathrm{O}_{2}$(4)$\mathrm{S}_{2}$[AIEEE-2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2)$\mathrm{N}_{2}$is diamagnetic Q. Which of the following is the wrong statement? (1) ONCl and$\mathrm{ONO}^{-}$are not isoelectronic (2)$\mathrm{O}_{3}$molecule is bent (3) Ozone is violet-black in solid state (4) Ozone is diamagnetic gas [JEE-maIN 2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (1) Number of electron in ONCl an$\mathrm{ONO}^{-}$is 32 & 24 respectively. Q. In which of the following pairs of molecules/ions, both the species are not likely to exist ? (1)$\mathrm{H}_{2}^{+}, \mathrm{He}_{2}^{2-}$(2)$\mathrm{H}_{2}^{-}, \mathrm{He}_{2}^{2-}$(3)$\mathrm{H}_{2}^{2+}, \mathrm{He}_{2}$(4)$\mathrm{H}_{2}^{-}, \mathrm{H} \mathrm{e}_{2}^{2+}$[JEE-main 2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3) Bond order of$\mathrm{H}_{2}^{2+} \& \mathrm{He}_{2}$is zero i.e. these molecule do not exist. Q. Stability of the species$\mathrm{Li}_{2}, \quad \mathrm{Li}_{2}^{-}$and$\mathrm{Li}_{2}^{+}$increases in the order of :- (1)$\mathrm{Li}_{2}<\mathrm{Li}_{2}^{+}<\mathrm{Li}_{2}^{-}$(2)$\mathrm{Li}_{2}^{-}<\mathrm{Li}_{2}^{+}<\mathrm{Li}_{2}$(3)$\mathrm{Li}_{2}<\mathrm{Li}_{2}<\mathrm{Li}_{2}^{+}$(4)$\mathrm{Li}_{2}^{-}<\mathrm{Li}_{2}<\mathrm{Li}_{2}^{+}$[JEE-main 2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2) Q. Trigonal bipyramidal geometry is shown by: (1)$\mathrm{XeO}_{3} \mathrm{F}_{2}$(2)$\mathrm{XeOF}_{2}$(3)$\left[\mathrm{XeF}_{8}\right]^{2-}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (1) Q. In which of the following ionization processes the bond energy has increased and also the magnetic behaviour has changed from paramagnetic to diamagnetic ? (1)$\mathrm{NO} \rightarrow \mathrm{NO}^{+}$(2)$\mathrm{O}_{2} \rightarrow \mathrm{O}_{2}^{+}$(3)$\mathrm{N}_{2} \rightarrow \mathrm{N}_{2}^{+}$( 4)$\mathrm{C}_{2} \rightarrow \mathrm{C}_{2}^{+}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (1) Q. Which one of the following molecules is polar? (1)$\mathrm{CF}_{4}$(2)$\mathrm{SbF}_{5}$(3)$\mathrm{IF}_{5}$(4)$\mathrm{XeF}_{4}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3) Q. Oxidation state of sulphur in anions$\mathrm{SO}_{3,}^{2-} \mathrm{S}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{4}^{2-}$and$\mathrm{S}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{6}^{2-}$increases in the orders : (1)$\mathrm{S}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{6}^{2-}<\mathrm{S}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{4}^{2-}<\mathrm{SO}_{3}^{2-}$(2)$\mathrm{SO}_{3}^{2-}<\mathrm{S}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{4}^{2-}<\mathrm{S}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{6}^{2-}$(3)$\mathrm{S}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{4}^{2-}<\mathrm{SO}_{3}^{2-}<\mathrm{S}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{6}^{2-}$(4)$\mathrm{S}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{4}^{2-}<\mathrm{S}_{2} \mathrm{O}_{6}^{2-}<\mathrm{SO}_{3}^{2-}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3) Q. Bond order normally gives idea of stability of a molecular species. All the molecules viz.$\mathrm{H}_{2}, \mathrm{Li}_{2}$and$\mathrm{B}_{2}$have the same bond order yet they are not equally stable. Their stability order is: (1)$\mathrm{Li}_{2}>\mathrm{H}_{2}>\mathrm{B}_{2}$(2)$\mathrm{H}_{2}>\mathrm{B}_{2}>\mathrm{Li}_{2}$(3)$\mathrm{B}_{2}>\mathrm{H}_{2}>\mathrm{Li}_{2}$(4)$\mathrm{Li}_{2}>\mathrm{B}_{2}>\mathrm{H}_{2}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2) Q. The solubility order for alkali metal fluoride in water is : (1)$\mathrm{LiF}<\mathrm{NaF}<\mathrm{KF}<\mathrm{RbF}$(2)$\mathrm{LiF}>\mathrm{NaF}>\mathrm{KF}>\mathrm{RbF}$(3)$\mathrm{RbF}<\mathrm{KF}<\mathrm{NaF}<\mathrm{LiF}$(4)$\mathrm{LiF}<\mathrm{RbF}<\mathrm{KF}<\mathrm{NaF}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (1) Solubility order LiF < NaF < KF < RbF Q.$\mathrm{XeO}_{4}$molecule is tetrahedral having : (1) Two p$\pi$-d$\pi$bonds (2) Four p$\pi$– d$\pi$bonds (3) One$\mathrm{p} \pi-\mathrm{d} \pi$bond (4) Three p$\pi$-d$\pi$bonds [JEE-MAINS(Online) 2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2) Q. Bond distance in HF is 9.17 ×$10^{-11}$m. Dipole moment of HF is 6.104 × 10–30 Cm. The percent ionic character in HF will be : (electron charge = 1.60 ×$10^{-19}$C) (1) 61.0% (2) 38.0% (3) 35.5% (4) 41.5% [JEE-MAINS(Online) 2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (4) Q. The shape of$\mathrm{IF}_{6}^{-}$is : (1) Trigonally distorted octahedron (2) Pyramidal (3) Octahedral (4) Square antiprism [JEE-MAINS(Online) 2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (1) Q. Which has trigonal bipyramidal shape ? (1)$\mathrm{XeOF}_{4}$(2)$\mathrm{XeO}_{3}$(3)$\mathrm{XeO}_{3} \mathrm{F}_{2}$(4)$\mathrm{XeOF}_{2}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3) Q. The catenation tendency of C, Si and Ge is in the order Ge < Si < C. The bond energies (in kJ$\mathrm{mol}^{-1}$) of C — C, Si —Si and Ge—Ge bonds are respectively : (1) 348, 260, 297 (2) 348, 297, 260 (3) 297, 348, 260 (4) 260, 297, 348 [JEE-MAINS(Online) 2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2) Catenation/Bond energy order C – C > Si – Si > Ge – Ge Q. In which of the following sets, all the given species are isostructural ? (1)$\mathrm{BF}_{3}, \mathrm{NF}_{3}, \mathrm{PF}_{3}, \mathrm{AlF}_{3}$(2)$\mathrm{PCl}_{3}, \mathrm{AlCl}_{3}, \mathrm{BCl}_{3}, \mathrm{SbCl}_{3}$(3)$\mathrm{BF}_{4}^{-}, \mathrm{CCl}_{4}, \mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}, \mathrm{PCl}_{4}^{+}$(4)$\mathrm{CO}_{2}, \mathrm{NO}_{2}, \mathrm{ClO}_{2}, \mathrm{SiO}_{2}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3)$\mathrm{BF}_{4}^{-}, \mathrm{CC}_{4}, \mathrm{NH}_{4}^{+}, \mathrm{PCl}_{4}^{+}$are terahedral Q. The internuclear distances in O —O bonds for O,$\mathrm{O}_{2}, \mathrm{O}^{-}$2 and O respectively are : (1) 1.49 Å, 1.21 Å, 1.12 Å, 1.30 Å (2) 1.30 Å, 1.49 Å, 1.12 Å, 1.21 (3) 1.12 Å, 1.21 Å, 1.30 Å, 1.49 Å (4) 1.21 Å, 1.12 Å, 1.49 Å, 1.30 Å [JEE-MAINS(Online) 2013] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3) Q. Which one of the following properties is not shown by NO ? (1) It combines with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide (2) It’s bond order is 2.5 (3) It is diamagnetic in gaseous state (4) It is a neutral oxide [JEE-main 2014] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3) Q. For which of the following molecule significant$\mu \neq 0$[JEE-main 2014] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2) Q. The number and type of bonds in$\mathrm{C}_{2}^{2-} \mathrm{ion}$in$\mathrm{CaC}_{2}$are: (1) Two$\sigma$bonds and one$\pi-$bond (2) Two$\sigma$bonds and two$\pi-$bonds (3) One$\sigma$bond and two$\pi-$bonds (4) One$\sigma$bond and one$\pi-$bond [JEE-MAINS(Online) 2014] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3) Q. For the compounds$\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{Cl}, \mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{Br}, \mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{I}$and$\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{F}$(1)$\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{F}<\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{Br}<\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{Cl}<\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{I}$(2)$\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{F}<\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{Cl}<\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{Br}<\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{I}$(3)$\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{Cl}<\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{Br}<\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{F}<\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{I}$, the correct order of increasing C-halogen bond length is : (4)$\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{F}<\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{I}<\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{Br}<\mathrm{CH}_{3} \mathrm{Cl}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2014] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2) Q. Which of the following has unpaired electron(s) ? (1)$\mathrm{O}_{2}^{-}$(2)$\mathrm{N}_{2}^{2+}$(3)$\mathrm{O}_{2}^{2-}$(4)$\mathrm{N}_{2}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2014] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (1)$\mathrm{O}_{2}^{-}$ha one unpaired electron Q. In allene$\left(\mathrm{C}_{3} \mathrm{H}_{4}\right)$, the type(s) of hybridization of the carbon atoms is (are): (1) only sp$^{2}$(2)$\mathrm{sp}^{2}$and$\mathrm{sp}$(3) sp and sp$^{3}$(4)$\mathrm{sp}^{2}$and$\mathrm{sp}^{3}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2014] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2) Q. Shapes of certain interhalogen compounds are stated below. Which one of them is not correctly stated? (1) IF$_{7}:$Pentagonal bipyramid (2) BrF$_{5}:$Trigonal bipyramid (4)$\mathrm{BrF}_{3}:$Planar T-shaped [JEE-MAINS(Online) 2014] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2)$\mathrm{BrF}_{5}$have square pyramidal shape. Q. The correct order of bond dissociation energy among$\mathrm{N}_{2}, \mathrm{O}_{2}, \mathrm{o}_{2}^{-}$is shown in which of the following arrangements? (1)$\mathrm{N}_{2}>\mathrm{O}_{2}>\mathrm{O}_{2}^{-}$(2)$\mathrm{O}_{2}>\mathrm{O}_{2}^{-}>\mathrm{N}_{2}$(3)$\mathrm{N}_{2}>\mathrm{O}_{2}^{-}>\mathrm{O}_{2}$(4)$\mathrm{O}_{2}^{-}>\mathrm{O}_{2}>\mathrm{N}_{2}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2014] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (1) Q. Which of the following molecules has two sigma$(\sigma)$and two$\operatorname{pi}(\pi)$bonds :- (1) HCN (2)$\mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{Cl}_{2}$(3)$\mathrm{N}_{2} \mathrm{F}_{2}$(4)$\mathrm{C}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{4}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2014] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (1) Q. Which one of the following molecules is paramagnetic? (1) NO ( 2)$\mathrm{O}_{3}$(3)$\mathrm{N}_{2}$(4) CO [JEE-MAINS(Online) 2014] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (1) NO has unpaired e$^{-} \therefore$paramagnetic is nature Q. Amongst LiCl, RbCl,$\mathrm{BeCl}_{2}$and$\mathrm{MgCl}_{2}$the compounds with the greatest and the least ionic character, respectively are : (1)$\mathrm{RbCl}$and$\mathrm{MgCl}_{2}$(2) LiCl and RbCl (3)$\mathrm{MgCl}_{2}$and$\mathrm{BeCl}_{2}$(4)$\mathrm{RbCl}$and$\mathrm{BeCl}_{2}$[JEE-MAINS(Online) 2014] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (4) RbCl has highest ionic & and$\mathrm{BeCl}_{2}$is most covalent Q. The species in which the N atom is in a state of sp hybridization is :- (1)$\mathrm{NO}_{2}$(2)$\mathrm{NO}_{2}^{+}$(3)$\mathrm{NO}_{2}^{-}$(4)$\mathrm{NO}_{3}^{-}$[JEE-MAINS 2016] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2) Q. Which of the following species is not paramagnetic :- (1)NO (2) CO (3)$\mathrm{O}_{2}$(4)$\mathrm{B}_{2}$[JEE-MAINS 2017] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2) Q. Total number of lone pair of electrons in$\mathrm{I}_{3}^{-} \mathrm{ion}$is (1) 6 (2) 9 (3) 12 (4) 3 [JEE-MAINS 2018] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (2) Q. According to molecular orbital theory, which of the following will not be a viable molecule ? (1)$\mathrm{He}_{2}^{+}$(2)$\mathrm{H}_{2}^{-}$(3)$\mathrm{H}_{2}^{2-}$(4)$\mathrm{He}_{2}^{2+}$[JEE-MAINS 2018] Download eSaral App for Video Lectures, Complete Revision, Study Material and much more... Sol. (3) Q. Which of the following compounds contain(s) no covalent bond(s) ?$\mathrm{KCl}, \mathrm{PH}_{3}, \mathrm{O}_{2}, \mathrm{B}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{6}, \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{SO}_{4}(1) \mathrm{KCl}, \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{SO}_{4}$(2) KC1 (3)$\mathrm{KCl}, \mathrm{B}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{6}$(4)$\mathrm{KCl}, \mathrm{B}_{2} \mathrm{H}_{6}, \mathrm{PH}_{3}\$ [JEE-MAINS 2018]

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Sol. (2)

Circular Motion Notes Class 11th – IIT JEE |
This article includes complete Circular Motion Notes for Class 11th. These notes will also help you in preparing Exams like IIT JEE, NEET and other Entrance Exams. eSaral Provides you free Detailed Notes with proper images and explanations.
System of Particles and Rotational Motion Class 11 Notes for IIT JEE & NEET
Work Energy and Power Class 11 Physics Notes for IIT JEE | NEET

Work Energy and Power can never be ignored as it covers basic concepts which provides a smooth access to the next some topics in Mechanics. This chapter is a key to prepare for entrance examinations like IIT-JEE & NEET. This is one of the most important topic in mechanics for IIT-JEE, NEET and CBSE perspectives. The terms work, energy and power have specific meanings in Physics. Work is done when a force produces motion. To do work, energy is required. This energy we acquire from the food which we eat and if work is done by machine, then energy is supplied by fuels or by current.

There are various forms of energy – kinetic energy, potential energy, heat energy, chemical energy, electrical energy, nuclear energy etc. Work Energy and Power Class 11 Physics notes  are given here:

Tips to Score Maximum Marks in JEE Mains Exam

To get into IIT is the dream of every JEE Aspirant. Most of them started preparing for JEE from foundation classes while some realises their interest and inclination towards engineering after class 10th. Now for the aspirants who are preparing for 2020, few months left for JEE-Mains 2019. Many students started worrying on how to score good marks in JEE mains exam. During this time of preparation, aspirants have many more questions in their mind, Such as:

• How to improve marks during mock test
• How to score above 300 marks in JEE mains
• How to attempt questions to score well in JEE mains
• Where to practice JEE mains mock Test.
• Where to get online test series for JEE Mains.

From last year, NTA (National Testing Agency) is conducting JEE Exam. From 2019 JEE mains exam held twice in year. In January and April.

Lot of hard work and practice is required to get a good score in JEE.

To score well in JEE mains, focus more on your learning & basic understanding of the concepts of Physics, Chemistry, and Mathematics. Click to watch Exam Pattern of JEE mains.

How to Study Physics for JEE Mains

Start with the basic concepts of Physics. Then memorize all the important Physics formulas for JEE Mains.

Practice makes everyone perfect so, practice questions more and more. Also practice previous year’s questions to make an idea on the question patterns that will appear in JEE mains. By practicing previous year questions, you will also get to know the most important chapters in JEE mains Physics. This will also help in strengthening your concepts and will make you familiar with a variety of questions asked in the exam.

Practice Mock Test on regular basis to improve score.

Don’t be overconfident. Sometimes it make mistakes if the question seems easy. Mostly mistakes are made in unit system where student ignore the difference between CGS and MKS systems. So, be easy-going and have the presence of mind while solving the problems.

How to Study Chemistry for JEE Mains

Chemistry comprises of three sections i.e., Physical Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry and Organic Chemistry. The numerical questions are asked only from Physical Chemistry. Chemistry is a scoring subject in JEE mains Exam as the difficulty level of the questions in Chemistry is easier than the other two subjects i.e., Physics and Mathematics. That’s why, Chemistry is the easiest part of the JEE Main Examination for many students.

Learn all important formulas in Physical Chemistry which will help you to solve numerical problems in less time in JEE Main Examination 2020.

Don’t be overconfident. Chemistry is the easiest part of the JEE Examination. Therefore, some students did not give sufficient time to Chemistry subject. As a result, they score less marks in JEE Main Examination. They think that they can learn the complete subject within a month which is not possible.

How to study Mathematics for JEE Mains

For most of the aspirants, Math is one of the toughest subject among all three. Mostly, performance of JEE mains aspirants are affected by fear of mathematics.

To cope up with the fear of math, there is only one solution. Practice! Practice! And Practice! You can also make an actionable study plan to conquer the JEE Mains Mathematics Preparation.

An Ideal rule of solving mathematics problem is that never start with a challenging problem. If you can’t solve few basic problems, it will make you nervous & hence it will distress your complete performance in JEE Mains paper.

Solve the easier mathematical problems first & then progress towards the challenging ones.

The more you practice Mathematics, the less you make mistakes while solving problems and hence you will get good score in the JEE Mains.

Take mock tests and practice previous year questions to get first real look and feel of the examination. JEE Mains mock tests provide good practice and are a guide to judge your abilities. You can get mock test at eSaral app. eSaral also provides Topic-wise tests and offers more than 5 lakh questions to practice. For more details Click here.

It has been observed from the toppers talk that mock tests during exam preparation helped them a lot in managing time as well as scoring well in JEE mains exam paper. Hence Mock tests plays an important role in scoring good marks.

Finally, I would like to say have faith in yourself and be confident on your learning and preparation for JEE exam. Focus on every subject individually to score well.

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