A small town with a demand of 800 kW of electric power
Question:

A small town with a demand of 800 kW of electric power at 220 V is situated 15 km away from an electric plant generating power at 440 V. The resistance of the two wire line carrying power is 0.5 Ω per km. The town gets power from the line through a 4000-220 V step-down transformer at a sub-station in the town.

(a) Estimate the line power loss in the form of heat.

(b) How much power must the plant supply, assuming there is negligible power loss due to leakage?

(c) Characterise the step up transformer at the plant.

Solution:

Total electric power required, P = 800 kW = 800 × 103 W

Supply voltage, V = 220 V

Voltage at which electric plant is generating power, V‘ = 440 V

Distance between the town and power generating station, d = 15 km

Resistance of the two wire lines carrying power = 0.5 Ω/km

Total resistance of the wires, R = (15 + 15)0.5 = 15 Ω

A step-down transformer of rating 4000 − 220 V is used in the sub-station.

Input voltage, V1 = 4000 V

Output voltage, V2 = 220 V

Rms current in the wire lines is given as:

$I=\frac{P}{V_{1}}$

$=\frac{800 \times 10^{3}}{4000}=200 \mathrm{~A}$b

(a) Line power loss = I2R

= (200)2 × 15

= 600 × 103 W

= 600 kW

(b) Assuming that the power loss is negligible due to the leakage of the current:

Total power supplied by the plant = 800 kW + 600 kW

= 1400 kW

(c) Voltage drop in the power line = IR = 200 × 15 = 3000 V

Hence, total voltage transmitted from the plant = 3000 + 4000

= 7000 V

Also, the power generated is 440 V.

Hence, the rating of the step-up transformer situated at the power plant is 440 V − 7000 V.

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