Find the smallest number by which 147 must be multiplied so that it becomes a perfect square.
Question:

Find the smallest number by which 147 must be multiplied so that it becomes a perfect square. Also, find the square root of the number so obtained.

Solution:

The prime factorisation of 147:

147 = 3 x 7 x 7

Grouping the factors into pairs of equal factors, we get:

147 = 3 x (7 x 7)

The factor, 3 does not have a pair. Therefore, we must multiply 147 by 3 to make a perfect square. The new number is:

(3 x 3) x (7 x 7) = 441

Taking one factor from each pair on the LHS, the square root of the new number is 3 x 7, which is equal to 21.

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