NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Biology Chapter 1
NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology chapter 1 The Living World PDF – eSaral

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology chapter 1 The Living World PDF

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In this article, we have listed NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology chapter 1 The Living World in PDF that are prepared by Kota’s top Doctor’s Faculties by keeping Simplicity in mind.

If you want to learn and understand class 11 Biology chapter 1 “The Living World” in an easy way then you can use these solutions PDF.

NCERT Solutions helps students to Practice important concepts of subjects easily. Class 11 Biology solutions provide detailed explanations of all the NCERT questions that students can use to clear their doubts instantly.

If you want to score high in your class 11 Biology Exam then it is very important for you to have a good knowledge of all the important topics, so to learn and practice those topics you can use eSaral NCERT Solutions.

In this article, we have listed NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology chapter 1 The Living World PDF that you can download to start your preparations anytime.

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Download NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology chapter 1 The Living World PDF



Question 1. Why are living organisms classified?

Solution: – There is a large variety of living organisms on earth like animals, plants, and microbes, and they all are of different shape, size, colour, habitat, and various other characteristics.

– Therefore, scientists have developed mechanisms to classify all the living organisms on specific rules and principles that would allow identification, nomenclature, and classification of any organism. For example, based on the presence of one pair of legs and two pairs of wings, an organism is identified as a bird, it will be given a scientific name and then grouped with other similar organisms.

– Therefore, classifying organisms, based on their similarities would make it easier for keeping data, makes the study of organisms easy and organised.

– Also, biological classification helps us in revealing the relationship between various organisms.

Question 2. Why are the classification systems changing every now and then?

Solution: There are two main reasons for the change in the classification system now and then: $\mathrm{i}$. evolution, and ii. discovery of new species.

i. There are millions of animals, plants, and microorganisms living on this earth which have been identified by the scientists while several new species are still being discovered around the world. These newly discovered plant and animal specimens are identified, classified and named according to the already existing classification systems.

ii. Since evolution is a continuous process, many different species of plants and animals keep on changing, so necessary changes in the already existing classification systems are essential.

Question 3. What different criteria would you choose to classify people that you meet often? (This is an opinion or activity-based question, and the answer would differ with each person, hence no marking scheme)

Solution: There are various criteria we can choose to classify people (humans):

– Sex of the person: Male, Female or Other

– Skin colour

– Height

– Mother tongue

– Age group

– Colour of eyes

– Profession, etc.

Question 4. What do we learn from identification of individuals and populations?

Solution: The identification of individuals and the population has taught us that there is huge biodiversity existing on earth. Based on the identification of similarities and dissimilarities among individuals or its entire population, scientists have been able to classify them into primarily five different kingdoms like plant, animal, fungi, protista, monera. Further, the most similar individuals can be categorised into the same species.

Question 5. Given below is the scientific name of Mango. Identify the correctly written name.

Mangifera Indica

Mangifera indica

Solution: The right scientific name of Mango is Mangifera indica according to the binomial

nomenclature system, which states that the generic name of a species starts with a capital

letter and the specific name starts with a small letter.

Question 6. Define a taxon. Give some examples of taxa at different hierarchical levels.

Solution: Each category or a unit of classification is called “taxon”. It signifies a rank. ICBN

introduced the term ‘taxon’ in 1956. For example, the hierarchical order of classification is

species, followed by genus, family, order, class, phylum (or division), and kingdom in

ascending order. So, each level is called a taxon.

Example: Human Taxonomy



Question 7. Can you identify the correct sequence of taxonomical categories?

(a) Species $\rightarrow$ Order $\rightarrow$ Phylum $\rightarrow$ Kingdom

(b) Genus $\rightarrow$ Species $\rightarrow$ Order $\rightarrow$ Kingdom

(c) Species $\rightarrow$ Genus $\rightarrow$ Order $\rightarrow$ Phylum

Solution: The hierarchical order of classification is species, followed by genus, family, order, class,

phylum (or division), and kingdom in ascending order.

Hence, both (a) and (c) options are correct.

Question 8. Try to collect all the currently accepted meanings for the word ‘species’. Discuss with

your teacher the meaning of species in case of higher plants and animals on one hand,

and bacteria on the other hand.

Solution: Definition of ‘Species’: A group of similar organisms which share the same genetic pool

and are capable of interbreeding under natural conditions to produce fertile offsprings.

In case of higher plants and animals, one genus may have one or more than one species,

e.g., Panthera leo (lion) and Panthera tigris (tiger). Here, Panthera is genus, and tigris is

a species.

Similarly, in bacteria also one genus may have one or more than one species., e.g.

Streptomyces anulatus ad Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, Streptomyces is a genus and

anulatus is a species. But, bacteria divide asexually (no interbreeding), plus constant genetic changes due to natural selection (example: antibiotic resistance bacteria); the

concept of species that works best for animals, becomes a matter of judgement in case of

bacteria.

Question 9. Define and understand the following terms:

(i) $\quad$ Phylum (ii) Class (iii) Family (iv) Order (v) Genusv

Solution: i. Phylum: A principal taxonomic category that ranks above class and below

kingdom, equivalent to the ‘division’ in botany. Based on the common features

like presence of notochord and dorsal hollow neural system, are included in

phylum Chordata.

ii. Class: A principal taxonomic category that ranks above order and below phylum. Example, Class mammals: All animals with hairs or fur and milk- producing glands are of class Mammalia.

iii. Family: A principal taxonomic category that ranks above genus and below

order. For example, genus Panthera (lion, tiger, leopard) is put along with genus

Felis (cats) in the family Felidae. But, if you observe the features of a cat and a

dog, you will find some similarities and some differences as well. They are

separated into two different families: Felidae and Canidae, respectively.

iv. Order: A principal taxonomic category that ranks above family and below class.

For example, families like Canidae and Felidae are under Carnivora order.

v. Genus: A principal taxonomic category that ranks above species and below family. Closely related species are put under the same genus. Example, Panthera leo (lion) and Panthera tigris (tiger). Here, Panthera is genus, and Tigris is a species.

Question 10. How is a key helpful in the identification and classification of an organism?

Solution: – Key is a taxonomical aid used for identification of animals and plants based on their dissimilarities and similarities.

– The keys are always in a pair and based on the contrasting characters called couplet.

– So, a choice has to be made between two opposite options. This results in the acceptance of only one and the rejection of the other.

– Each statement in the key is called a lead.

– Distinct taxonomic keys for each taxonomic category such as genus, family and species are required for the identification purposes.

– Keys are usually analytical in nature.

Question 11. Illustrate the taxonomical hierarchy with suitable examples of a plant and an animal.

Solution: The classification system of Linnaean consists of a hierarchy of groupings, called taxa, which range from species at the bottom to kingdom at the top.



Figure: Taxonomic hierarchy in Homo sapiens (animal-humans)



Also Read,

Download Class 11 Chemistry Notes.

Download Class 11 Biology Book Chapterwise.

Download Class 11 Biology Exemplar Chapterwise.

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