Types of nuclei – Nuclear Physics class 12 – eSaral

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Types of nuclei

Isotopes

  1. These are nuclei of the same element having the same Z but different Ae.g.
    ${ }_{8} \mathrm{O}^{16},{ }_{8} \mathrm{O}^{17},{ }_{8} \mathrm{O}^{18}$

    ${ }_{1} \mathrm{H}^{1},{ }_{1} \mathrm{H}^{2},{ }_{1} \mathrm{H}^{3}$

    ${ }_{92} \mathrm{U}^{234},{ }_{92} \mathrm{U}^{235}, \underset{92}{\mathrm{U}^{238}}$
  2. All isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties
  3. They occupy the same place in the periodic table
  4. They cannot be separated by chemical analysis
  5. They can be separated by mass spectrometers or mass spectrographs

Isotones

  1. These are nuclei of different elements having the same N but different A.
    ${ }_{6} \mathrm{C}_{7}^{13}$ & ${ }_{7} \mathrm{~N}_{7}^{14}$

    ${ }_{1} \mathrm{H}_{2}^{3}$ & ${ }_{2} \mathrm{He}_{2}^{4}$${ }_{2} \mathrm{Be}_{5}^{9}$ & ${ }_{5} \mathrm{~B}_{5}^{10}$
  2. Isotones are different elements with different chemical properties
  3. They occupy different positions in the periodic table
  4. They can be separated by chemical analysis and mass spectrometers

Isobars

  1. These are nuclei of different elements having the same A but different N and Z.
    e.g. ${ }_{6} \mathrm{C}^{14}$

    and ${ }_{7} \mathrm{~N}^{14}$${ }_{18} \mathrm{Ar}^{40}$

    and ${ }_{20} \mathrm{Ca}^{40}$
  2. Isobars are different elements with different chemical properties
  3. They occupy different positions in the periodic table
  4. They can be separated by chemical analysis but cannot be separated by mass spectrometers.

Mirror nuclei

These are nuclei with the same A but in which neutron and proton numbers are interchanged.

e.g. ${ }_{4} \mathrm{Be}_{3}^{7}(\mathrm{Z}=4, \mathrm{~N}=3)$

and

$3 \mathrm{Li}_{4}^{7}(Z=3, \mathrm{~N}=4)$

Isomer nuclei

  1. These are nuclei with the same A and same Z but differ in their nuclear energy states
  2. They have different lifetimes and internal structure
  3. These nuclei have different radioactive properties.e.g. $\mathrm{Co}^{60}$ & $\mathrm{Co}^{60 *}$
 

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