|CHAPTER – 1
||Physics & Measurement
- Physics, technology, and society, SI CHAPTERs, Fundamental and derived CHAPTERs.
- Least count, accuracy and precision of measuring instruments, Errors in measurement, Significant figures.
- Dimensions of Physical quantities, dimensional analysis, and its applications.
|CHAPTER – 2
- The frame of reference.
- Motion in a straight line: Position-time graph, speed, and velocity.
- Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time, position-time graphs, relations for uniformly accelerated motion.
- Scalars and Vectors, Vector addition and Subtraction, Zero Vector, Scalar and Vector products, CHAPTER Vector, Resolution of a Vector.
- Relative Velocity, Motion in a plane, Projectile Motion, Uniform Circular Motion.
|CHAPTER – 3
||Laws of Motion
- Force and Inertia, Newton’s First Law of motion; Momentum, Newton’s Second Law of motion; Impulse; Newton’s Third Law of motion.
- Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications, Equilibrium of concurrent forces.
- Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction.
- Dynamics of uniform circular motion: Centripetal force and its applications
|CHAPTER – 4
||Work Energy & Power
- Work done by a constant force and a variable force; kinetic and potential energies, work-energy theorem, power.
- The potential energy of a spring, conservation of mechanical energy, conservative and non-conservative forces.
- Elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
|CHAPTER – 5
- Centre of the mass of a two-particle system, Centre of the mass of a rigid body.
- Basic concepts of rotational motion; the moment of a force, torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum and its applications; the moment of inertia, the radius of gyration.
- Values of moments of inertia for simple geometrical objects, parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
- Rigid body rotation, equations of rotational motion.
|CHAPTER – 6
- The universal law of gravitation.
- Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
- Kepler’s laws of planetary motion.
- Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential & Escape velocity.
- Orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.
|CHAPTER – 7
||Properties of Solids
- Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship, Hooke’s Law, Young’s modulus, bulk modulus, modulus of rigidity. Pressure due to a fluid column; Pascal’s law and its applications.
- Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, streamline and turbulent flow, Reynolds number.
- Bernoulli’s principle and its applications.
- Surface energy and surface tension, the angle of contact, application of surface tension – drops, bubbles and capillary rise.
- Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; specific heat capacity, calorimetry; change of state, latent heat. Heat transfer-conduction, convection and radiation, Newton’s law of cooling.
|CHAPTER – 8
- Thermal equilibrium, zeroth law of thermodynamics, the concept of temperature.
- Heat, work and internal energy.
- First law of thermodynamics.
- The second law of thermodynamics: reversible and irreversible processes. Carnot engine and its efficiency.
|CHAPTER – 9
||Kinetic Theory of Gases
- The equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.
- Kinetic theory of gases: assumptions, the concept of pressure.
- Kinetic energy and temperature: RMS speed of gas molecules; Degrees of freedom, Law of equipartition of energy, applications to specific heat capacities of gases; Mean free path, Avogadro’s number.
|CHAPTER – 10
||Oscillations & Waves
- Periodic motion: period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions.
- Simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring -restoring force and force constant; energy in S.H.M. – kinetic and potential energies; Simple pendulum – derivation of expression for its time period; Free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance.
- Wave motion: Longitudinal and transverse waves, the speed of a wave. Displacement relation for a progressive wave.
- The principle of superposition of waves, the reflection of waves, Standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics, Beats, Doppler effect in sound.
|CHAPTER – 11
- Electric charges: Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-forces between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
- Electric field: Electric field due to a point charge, Electric field lines, Electric dipole, Electric field due to a dipole, Torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
- Electric flux, Gauss’s law, and its applications to find field due to infinitely long uniformly charged straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell.
- Electric potential and its calculation for a point charge, electric dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges in an electrostatic field.
- Conductors and insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitor, the combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, Energy stored in a capacitor.
|CHAPTER – 12
- Electric current, Drift velocity, Ohm’s law, Electrical resistance, Resistances of different materials, V-I characteristics of Ohmic and nonohmic conductors, Electrical energy and power, Electrical resistivity, Colour code for resistors; Series and parallel combinations of resistors; Temperature dependence of resistance.
- Electric Cell and its Internal resistance, potential difference and emf of a cell, the combination of cells in series and in parallel.
- Kirchhoff’s laws and their applications, Wheatstone bridge, Metre bridge.
- Potentiometer: principle and its applications.
- Biot – Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
|CHAPTER – 13
||Magnetic Effects of Current & Magnetism
- Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long current carrying straight wire and solenoid.
- Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron.
- Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field.
- The force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of the ampere.
- Torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Moving coil galvanometer, its current sensitivity, and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
- Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment.
- Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro- magnetic substances.
- Magnetic susceptibility and permeability, Hysteresis, Electromagnets and permanent magnets.
|CHAPTER – 14
||Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Currents
- Electromagnetic induction: Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents.
- Self and mutual inductance.
- Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit, resonance; Quality factor, power in AC circuits, wattless current.
- AC generator and transformer.
|CHAPTER – 15
- Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics. Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
- Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays).
- Applications of E.M. waves.
|CHAPTER – 16
- Reflection and refraction of light at plane and spherical surfaces, mirror formula, Total internal reflection and its applications, Deviation and Dispersion of light by a prism, Lens Formula, Magnification, Power of a Lens, Combination of thin lenses in contact, Microscope and Astronomical Telescope (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
- Wave optics: wavefront and Huygens’ principle, Laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle.
- Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light.
- Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.
- Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes, Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.
||Dual Nature of Matter & Radiation
- Dual nature of radiation.
- Photoelectric effect, Hertz, and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation; particle nature of light.
- Matter waves-wave nature of the particle, de Broglie relation & Davisson-Germer experiment.
|CHAPTER – 18
||Atoms & Nuclei
- Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
- Composition and size of the nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.
- Radioactivity-alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law.
- Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number, nuclear fission, and fusion.
|CHAPTER – 19
- Semiconductor diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias; diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator.
- Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator.
- Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).
- The transistor as a switch.
|CHAPTER – 20
- Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere; Sky and space wave propagation, Need for modulation, Amplitude, and Frequency Modulation.
- Bandwidth of signals, Bandwidth of Transmission medium, Basic Elements of a Communication System (Block Diagram only)