Describe the role played by protein pumps during active transport in plants.
In plant cells, active transport occurs against the concentration gradient, i.e., from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration. The process of active transport involves specific protein pumps. The protein pumps are made up of specific proteins called trans-membrane proteins. These pumps first make a complex with the substance to be transported across the membrane, using the energy derived from ATP. The substance finally gets liberated into the cytoplasm as a result of the dissociation of the protein–substance complex.