Nationalism In India Class 10 NotesClass 10
The article "Nationalism In India Class 10 Notes" will introduce readers to the concept of nationalism in India and its historical significance. It will explore how nationalism emerged in India and the key figures and events that shaped the nationalist movement. The article will also highlight the different forms of nationalism that existed in India, such as cultural and political nationalism, and the ways in which they contributed to India's struggle for independence.
Comprises of Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia — French colony.
Views of Paul Bernard
- Paul Bernard strongly believed that the purpose of acquiring colonies was to make profits, and he was an influential writer and policy-maker.
- He argued that developing the economy would raise the standard of living for people and increase the demand for goods, thereby expanding the market and generating better profits for French businesses.
- According to him, there were several barriers to economic growth in Vietnam, including a large population, low agricultural productivity, and extensive indebtedness.
- To reduce poverty and increase agricultural productivity, he advocated for carrying out land reforms.
- Additionally, he emphasized the importance of industrialization for creating more job opportunities, as agriculture alone was unlikely to suffice.
Ho Chi Minh Trail - Nationalism In India Class 10 Notes
- The Vietnamese used their limited resources to great advantage, as exemplified by the trail.
- The trail consisted of an immense network of footpaths and roads used to transport men and material from North to South Vietnam.
- In the late 1950s, improvements were made to the trail, and by 1967, approximately 20,000 North Vietnamese troops were moving south each month using the trail. Additionally, there were support bases and hospitals situated along the trail.
- Women porters played a crucial role in transporting supplies, carrying them on their backs or bicycles.
- Despite regular bombing by the US to disrupt supplies, efforts to destroy the trail by intensive bombing failed because it was rebuilt very quickly.
Influence of Japan
- Nationalism In India Class 10 Notes-Around 300 Vietnamese students went to Japan in 1907-08 to acquire modern education with the primary objective of driving out the French from Vietnam, overthrowing the puppet emperor, and reestablishing the Nguyen dynasty that had been deposed by the French. They sought foreign help to achieve this goal.
- The Vietnamese nationalists saw Japan as a potential ally since it had modernized itself and had resisted colonization by the West. Additionally, Japan had proven its military strength by defeating Russia in 1907. The Vietnamese appealed to the Japanese as fellow Asians for arms and assistance.
- In Tokyo, the Vietnamese students established a branch of the Restoration Society. However, in 1908, the Japanese Ministry of Interior cracked down on them. Many, including Phan Boi Chau, were deported and forced to seek exile in China and Thailand.
Scholars Revolt, 1868
- Officials at the imperial court led an early movement against French control and the spread of Christianity.
- They were angry about the spread of Catholicism and French power, and an uprising occurred in the Ngu An and Ha Tien provinces, where Catholic missionaries had been active in converting people since the early 17th century.
- By the middle of the 18th century, almost 300,000 people had converted to Christianity, which angered the locals in these provinces and led to the uprising.
- Although the French crushed this uprising, it inspired people in other regions to resist French colonialism.
Hoa Hao Movement - Nationalism In India Class 10 Notes
- Nationalism In India Class 10 Notes- Huynh Phu So founded the Hoa Hao movement in 1939, which gained popularity in the Mekong delta area due to his miracles and assistance to the poor.
- His criticism of useless expenditure, opposition to the sale of child brides, gambling, and the use of alcohol and opium appealed to a wide audience.
- The French authorities tried to suppress the movement and declared Huynh Phu So, who they called the Mad Bonze, insane, and put him in a mental asylum. Interestingly, the doctor who had to certify him insane became his follower, and in 1941, the French doctors declared him sane.
- Despite this, the French authorities exiled him to Laos and sent many of his followers to concentration camps.
Major problems in the field of education for the French in Vietnam
- Nationalism In India Class 10 Notes- The French colonial administration required an educated local workforce, but they were concerned that educated Vietnamese people might begin to question colonial domination.
- French citizens living in Vietnam, known as "colons," opposed the policy of providing Vietnamese people with full access to French education as they feared losing their jobs as teachers, shopkeepers, and policemen to educated Vietnamese.
- The elites in Vietnam were still heavily influenced by Chinese culture, so the French systematically dismantled the traditional Vietnamese education system and established French schools for the Vietnamese.
- Schools became a vital battleground for political and cultural struggles against French colonial education. Students fought against the colonial government's efforts to prevent the Vietnamese from qualifying for white-collar jobs.
- A protest occurred at the Saigon Girls School due to racial discrimination. The protest was sparked when a Vietnamese girl sitting in the front row was asked to move back to allow a local French student to occupy the front seat. The girl refused and, along with other protesting students, was expelled. The government was compelled to readmit the expelled students to the school to prevent further open protests.
Rat Hunt - Nationalism In India Class 10 Notes
- In 1902, bubonic plague struck the modem city of Hanoi due to the infestation of rats in the large sewers.
- To get rid of the rats, the French started a 'Rat Hunt' and hired Vietnamese workers who were paid for each rat they caught.
- The collective bargaining lesson was learned by Vietnamese workers who found out that they could negotiate a higher bounty if they came together.
- Vietnamese workers also found innovative ways to profit from the situation, clipping the tails of rats and releasing them to repeat the process for higher pay.
- The French bounty programme was scrapped due to the resistance of the Vietnamese.
- Bubonic plague continued to sweep through the area in 1903 and subsequent years.
- The rat menace exposed the limits of French power and their civilizing mission's contradictions.
U.S. entry into the war
- The Vietnamese and Americans both suffered significant costs when the US entered the war.
- Between 1965 and 1972, over 403,100 US personnel, including 7,484 women, served in Vietnam.
- Many American soldiers died in battle, and a significant number were wounded.
- The arrival of thousands of US troops with heavy weaponry, tanks, and powerful bombers like the B52s made the struggle brutal.
- The use of chemical weapons like Napalm, Agent Orange, and Phosphorous bombs caused widespread destruction, decimating villages and jungles and resulting in the deaths of many civilians.
Effect of the US involvement on life within the US
- The government’s policy of war faced criticism from most people.
- When the government began drafting youths for the war, the public's anger intensified.
- Only university graduates were exempted from compulsory service in the armed forces.
- The US media played a significant role in both supporting and criticizing the war.
- Hollywood produced films that supported the war, such as John Wayne's Green Berets (1968).
- Other films were critical of the war.
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