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NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics PDF

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CBSE Class 12 Physics NCERT Solutions 2023-24 is provided on this page where you can download it in the form of a pdf. Physics in Class 12 is one of the most interesting subjects for science students. To score well in your board exams, you must have a thorough understanding and knowledge of each chapter of the subject. Solving and reviewing ncert physics class 12 solutions is made easier by our website, these notes will help you to score good in your Physics CBSE Class 12 examination.

You should prepare for your CBSE board's exam with the appropriate study material. The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics available on esaral is not only helpful for boards but also for other competitive exams like JEE, NEET etc. as a student you can refer to it to properly understand the logic behind the concepts. You can also download the ncert physics class 12 solutions in pdf format so that you can access them later in offline mode. 

NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics Free PDF Download  (Chapter-Wise)

The solutions of every chapter are available on this page for CBSE students. To get access to these free NCERT Physics Class 12 Solutions PDF from Chapters 1 to 15, you can follow the links which are given below. The solutions provided here are free to view online or  you can access them or download them in PDF format. To download a PDF of the cbse class 12 physics ncert  for a specific chapter, click on the “Download PDF” button, which is provided at the top of each of the chapter pages listed below.

Overview Of NCERT Solutions Class 12 Physics Chapter Details 

Chapter 1: Electric Charges and Fields

This is the first chapter in the Class 12 NCERT Textbook. In the 1st chapter, you will get to learn about the electric charges, fields and their functional areas. Additionally, you will also get to know about the related laws and theorems like the Gauss’ Law. Some of you may find this chapter a bit difficult, but when you have Physics NCERT Class 12 PDF, then comprehending and solving the questions will not be a problem. 

List of Topics Covered Under Chapter 1 

Electric Charge

Coulomb’s law-force between two-point charges

Forces between multiple charges

Conservation of charge

Superposition principle and continuous charge distribution

Electric field

Electric field lines

Electric field due to a point charge

Electric dipole

Electric flux

Statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications 

Chapter 2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

In this second chapter of the Class 12 Physics textbook, you will learn about the potential difference and the development of electrostatic potential. Moreover, this chapter has essential formulas and derivations, which you need to implement to solve the numerical problems.

List of Topics Covered Under Chapter 2 

Electric potential

Potential difference

Equipotential surfaces

Electric potential due to a point charge

A dipole and system of charges

Conductors and insulators

Dielectrics and electric polarisation

Combination of capacitors in series and in parallel

Capacitors and capacitance

Energy stored in a capacitor

Chapter 3: Current Electricity

In this chapter, you will learn the definitions of important terms like conductance, resistance, cell EMF, drift velocity, conductance, resistivity and internal resistance. You will also get to know the graph of resistivity for semiconductors, metals and alloys. It will provide a good hold on the conversion of complex circuits into simple parallel and series circuits. The concepts of meter bridge or potentiometer is explained briefly in this chapter. Numericals problems based on these concepts are available for practice at the end of the chapter.

List of Topics Covered Under Chapter 3

Electric current

The flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor

Drift velocity 

Ohm’s law

Electrical resistance, Electrical resistivity and Conductivity

Potential difference and emf of a cell

Potentiometer principle and its applications

Measurement of internal resistance of a cell

Wheatstone bridge

Meter bridge

Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications

Chapter 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

In this chapter, you will go through several diagrams, examples, graphs and illustrations from everyday life. This chapter also includes the derivation of concepts like Ampere’s circuital law, forces between two wires carrying current. At the end of the chapter, there are numerical problems and questions given based on these concepts. This chapter is very important and holds extra marks in the exam. Hence, you should practice these questions regularly, to get a good understanding of the chapter.

List of Topics Covered Under Chapter 4

Concept of magnetic field

Oersted’s experiment

Ampere’s law and its applications

Biot – Savart law and its application

Definition of ampere

Moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity

Galvanometer as ammeter and voltmeter

Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter

This is the 5th chapter of NCERT Physics textbook and this chapter contains questions on various quantities, how to calculate the magnetic field of earth, compass direction and its effects at the poles. You can refer to the NCERT Class 12 Physics solutions in PDF format available on esaral for your problems.

List of Topics Covered Under Chapter 5

Current loop as a magnetic dipole - Magnetic dipole movement

Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid 

Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements

The magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron

Magnetic field lines

Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction

This chapter describes both electricity and magnetism together. The key concepts of importance here are Faraday's and Lenz's law. The definitions and problems based on these laws are explained in a systematic manner to help you to understand the concepts easily. The direction of induced emf and magnetic field should be considered while solving numerical problems from the exercise questions given in the textbook.

List of Topics Covered Under Chapter 6

Electromagnetic induction

Faraday’s laws

Lenz’s Law

Peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage

Eddy currents

Induced EMF and current

Self and mutual induction

Chapter 7: Alternating Current

In this chapter you will be able to learn about the AC Voltage applied to a resistor, capacitor, inductor and series LCR circuit. The various diagrams and graphs present in the NCERT textbook that helps you to clear your concept. By regularly revising and learning this chapter, you are able to answer the complex questions and problems that would appear in the board exams. The important topic of this chapter is transformers. Learning this chapter completely will help you to secure good grades not only in the board exams, but it will also help to clear other competitive exams.

List of Topics Covered Under Chapter 7

Alternating currents

Power in AC circuits: The power factor

Resonance, reactance, and impedance 

LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only)

LCR series circuit 

AC generator and transformer

Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves

This is the 8th chapter in the NCERT Class 12 Physics textbook. Electromagnetic waves are also based on the topic of magnetism, and your previous knowledge of the chapter will assist you in mastering this chapter. Still, if you find any difficulty in this chapter then you can refer to the class 12 physics ncert solutions

In this chapter, you will learn in detail about concepts of electromagnetism, capacitor, potential difference and displacement. Other main concepts in this chapter include Kirchhoff’s rules, RMS value of conduction current as well as the similarities between conduction current and displacement current.

List of Topics Covered Under Chapter 8

Electromagnetic waves - their characteristics and nature

Electromagnetic spectrum with its elementary facts  and its uses

Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

In this chapter, you will learn about the phenomena of reflection, refraction and dispersion of light using the ray picture. By using the laws of reflection and refraction, the image formation is very well explained in this chapter. The construction and working of optical instruments including the human eye, different types of lens is covered here. 

List of Topics Covered Under Chapter 9

Ray Optics


Combination of thin lenses in contact

Power of a lens

Refraction of light

Refraction of light through a prism


Optical fibers

Total internal reflection and its applications

Some natural phenomenon due to sunlight

Optical Instruments

Astronomical telescopes and their magnifying power

Microscopes (reflecting and refracting) 

Chapter 10: Wave Optics

In chapter 10, the most important topic is Huygen’s laws of reflection and refraction.This topic contains more weightage of marks from this chapter. Other concepts in this chapter include Doppler Effect, Brewster’s Law and angular width expression. It is recommended that you should go through all the derivations and theories in this chapter as well as you should solve all the numerical problems and questions of this chapter.

List of Topics Covered Under Chapter 10

Wavefront and Huygen’s principle

Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle

Reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts

Young’s double-slit experiment and expression for fringe width, the width of central maximum, diffraction due to a single slit.

Coherent sources and sustained interference of light

Interference and polarization

Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

This chapter contains key topics like electron emission, photoelectric effect, experimental effect, Einstein’s Photoelectric equation and the wave nature of matter. Numericals are also important to score more marks. Most of the questions from the NCERT textbook can be expected to appear in the final exam. As we all know this chapter holds good marks, you will be able to attain remarkable marks, and further achieve your career goals.

List of Topics Covered Under Chapter 11

Dual nature of radiation

Electric emission

Photoelectric effect

De-Broglie relation

Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light

Hertz and Lenard’s observations

Photoelectric effect

Experimental study of photoelectric effect

Davisson and Germer experiment

Matter waves-wave nature of particles

Chapter 12: Atoms

The most important topic of this chapter 12 is the Bohr Model of Hydrogen Atom. You should make sure to learn all the important formulas and concepts of this chapter. While solving numerical problems, ensure that all the steps are shown in the answer. This is because, aa per the  CBSE marking scheme, students will receive marks for the steps shown in answer to numerical problems, even if their answer is incorrect.

List of Topics Covered Under Chapter 12

Bohr model

Rutherford’s model of atom

Alpha-particle scattering experiment

Atomic spectra

The line spectra of the hydrogen atom

De Broglie’s explanation of Bohr’s Second Postulate of Quantisation

Chapter 13: Nuclei

The key topics of this chapter are atomic masses and composition of nucleus, size of the nucleus, mass energy and nuclear binding energy, nuclear force, radioactivity and nuclear energy.In Physics, one of the best ways to prepare for your board exams is to take notes and make points of the important formulas and definitions and keep them revised. 

List of Topics Covered Under Chapter 13

Atomic masses and composition of nucleus

Size of Nucleus

Mass energy and nuclear binding energy

Nuclear force


Nuclear energy: Fission, nuclear reactor, nuclear fusion

Chapter 14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

In this 14th  chapter of Class 12 Physics textbook. This unit is all about semiconductors and their types, insulators and their applications. This chapter is one of the most scoring chapters in Class 12 board exams.

Most of the questions asked from this chapter will be based on the concepts of n-type semiconductors, dopants and carries. True or false type questions about topics including germanium, carbon and silicon semiconductors might also be asked from this chapter. The method to determine the energy gap is another important concept in this chapter. You should learn how to determine the output frequency of a half-wave as well as a full-wave rectifier thoroughly, as questions will be asked on this topic. This chapter contains many extra exercises that have lots of questions on finding the number of electrons and holes in the atoms of arsenic, indium and silicon.

List of Topics Covered Under Chapter 14

Classifications of metals, conductors and semiconductors
Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor
P-n Junction
Semiconductor diode
Application of junction diode as a rectifier
Special purpose p-n junction diodes: Zener diode, Photodiode, LED, Solar cell
Digital Electronics and logic gates

Chapter 15: Communication Systems

Communication Systems are a collection of systems which are used for connection, transmission, communication and interconnection. These systems are divided into three types like Media, Technology and Application Area. Transducers, sensors, amplifiers and emitters are some of the examples of modern techniques  which are the components in the modern devices. To obtain a good grip on these concepts, you should refer to the best study material available on the internet nowaday.

List of Topics Covered Under Chapter 15

Communication Systems

Classification of communication systems into Technology

Media and Application Area

Components of modern electronics including sensors, emitters, transducers and amplifiers

CBSE Marking Scheme 2023-24 for Physics

For this academic year 2023-24, the CBSE board has divided the entire curriculum into equal parts. The purpose behind this is to provide sufficient time for the candidate to learn the basic concepts with ease. According to the marks weightage, you will be able to analyse the chapters which are of more importance from the exam point of view. By covering the entire syllabus, you will be able to improve their logical thinking and systematic approach towards complex questions that will appear in the final exams.

 CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus  2023-24

Unit No.

Name of Unit






Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields


Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance


Current Electricity


Chapter–3: Current Electricity


Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism



Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism


Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter


Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents


Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction


Chapter–7: Alternating currents


Electromagnetic Waves



Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves




Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments


Chapter–10: Wave Optics


Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter



Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter


Atoms and Nuclei


Chapter-12: Atoms


Chapter–13: Nuclei


Electronic Devices



Chapter–14: Semiconductor -Electronics: Materials,

Devices and Simple Circuits




FAQs on NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Physics

Question 1:  How Many Chapters are There in Physics Class 12 NCERT Book? Also, Write the Names.

Answer 1: There are 15 chapters in Physics Class 12 NCERT book. Here are the chapter mentioned below

Chapter 1: Electric Charges and Fields
Chapter 2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Chapter 3: Current Electricity
Chapter 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter
Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction
Chapter 7: Alternating Current
Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves
Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Chapter 10: Wave Optics
Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Chapter 12: Atoms
Chapter 13: Nuclei
Chapter 14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
Chapter 15: Communication system

Question 2: How are NCERT Solutions for Class 12 helpful for CBSE students?

Answer 2: NCERT Solutions are specially  designed for CBSE students and are based on the latest syllabus prescribed by the CBSE Board. Most of the questions asked in the exams are from NCERT textbooks, which in turn, help to understand the marking scheme and exam pattern.


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