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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science - Free PDF Download

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When you pass class 9th and reach class 10, subjects like science and mathematics can be a bit difficult to handle in terms of topics. In such cases, having the assistance of NCERT solutions for class 10 science can help you so much to score good marks in your examination. We have a collection of wisely-created solutions for class 10 ncert science solutions that will help you to go a bit deeper into the chapters and get a vast learning of the concepts that are practised in every single one of them. We understand that subjects such as Biology, Chemistry, and Physics can be a bit difficult to handle, especially in Class 10. 

You don't need to be worried because you are at the right place where you can get help. All you have to do is visit the official site of Esaral and make sure that you get the best solutions for every single chapter provided in the NCERT class 10 science textbook. These solutions are great for researching and for the preparation of your examination point of view. Not too worried because you will be able to download the solution and study them offline as well since all the solutions are available in PDF form for you. The solutions are always up-to-date to the latest editions of the books and contain all the answers to every single problem in the textbook. 

Our expert teachers have carefully designed the science NCERT Solutions for class 10 Science that can help you understand the concepts and learn how to answer properly in your board exams. The NCERT Class 10 science book has a total of 16 chapters, and they are divided into three parts; each part has a specific field of science. 

Class 10 Science NCERT Solutions

Mentioned below is the chapter name of NCERT Textbook for class 10. You can download the NCERT solution for class 10 science in pdf form by clicking the link below and start your preparation.

NCERT Solutions Class 10 Science Book All Chapters are In Brief:

Chapter 1 – Chemical Reactions and Equations

The first chapter of Class 10 NCERT Science textbook will teach you all about chemical reactions and how to write chemical equations, how to perform combination and decomposition reactions and many more. In the previous classes, you must have learned about physical and chemical changes in matter(solid, liquid and gas). Whenever a chemical change happens, we can say that a chemical reaction has taken place. A complete chemical reaction represents the reactants, products and physical states symbolically. You will also study how to write a chemical reaction and symbolic representation of a chemical reaction. The chapter also explains how you can balance different chemical reactions in different states. 

The next subtopic of this chapter is types of chemical reactions such as Combination Reaction, Decomposition reaction, Displacement Reaction and Double Displacement Reaction along with multiple examples and chemical reactions. On the basis of energy, exothermic and endothermic reactions are explained. Exothermic reactions are those reactions in which heat is given out along with the products and endothermic reactions are those reactions in which energy gets absorbed. After that redox reaction is explained, which is a combination of reduction reaction and oxidation reaction. The chapter explains all types of reactions with suitable examples with their specific chemical equations.

Topics  in Class 10 Science Chapter 1 Chemical Reactions and Equations 

Chemical reactions: Chemical equation, Balanced chemical equation, implications of a balanced chemical equation, types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, displacement, double displacement, precipitation, endothermic exothermic reactions, oxidation: effects of oxidation in our daily life and reduction.

Chapter 2 – Acids, Bases and Salts

NCERT Class 10 Science Chapter 2 is all about acids, bases and salts. In previous classes, you must have learned that the sour and bitter tastes of food are due to acids and bases, respectively, present in food. As we all know that acids are sour in taste and  change the colour of blue litmus to red litmus, whereas, bases are bitter in taste and change the colour of the red litmus to blue litmus. In this chapter, you will study the reactions of acids and bases, how acids and bases cancel out each other’s effects and many more interesting things that we use in our daily life. In this chapter you will get to understand the chemical properties of acids and bases, how acids and bases react with metals, metal hydrogen carbonates and how  metal carbonates react with acids, how acids and bases react with each other, reaction of metallic oxides with acids and reaction of a non-metallic oxide with base explained with appropriate examples and several chemical reactions.

The chapter explains what all acids and bases have in common properties with a suitable example which gives the conclusion that acid solution in water conducts electricity. You get to learn so many experiments on what happens to acid or a base in a water solution and how strong are acid or base solutions by making use of universal indicator. Along with it, students will get to learn about the importance of pH in day-to-day life. The chapter ends with a precise explanation of salt preparation, properties and its uses.

Topics Class 10 Science Chapter 2 Acids, Bases and Salts 

Acids, bases and salts: Definitions of acids, bases and salt in terms of furnishing of H+ and OH– ions, General properties, examples and uses, neutralization, concept of pH scale, importance of pH in our everyday life; preparation ,more about salt; family of salt, pH of salt, chemical from common salt, such as Sodium Hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris(POP).

Chapter 3 – Metals and Non-metals

In previous classes, you must have studied about various elements that can be classified as metals or non-metals on the basis of their characteristics. Here in Chapter 3, you will learn about the physical properties of metals and non-metals. Metals are lustrous, malleable, ductile and are good conductors of heat and electricity. Metals are solid at room temperature, except mercury which is a liquid. The physical properties of metals are explained on different parameters such as ductility, malleability, tensile nature, strength, etc. On the basis of physical properties, metals and non-metals are differentiated. Some of the examples of non-metals are carbon, iodine,sulphur,  oxygen, hydrogen, etc. The non-metals are either in solid form or in gaseous form except Bromine which is a liquid. Under the subtopic chemical properties of metals, chemical reactions are discussed with oxygen gas, acids, water and other metal salts. The reactions and conditions depend on the reactivity series. At the top of the reactivity series, potassium is the most reactive element and gold is the least reactive element.

The compounds formed in this manner by the transfer of electrons from a metal to a non-metal are known as electrovalent compounds or ionic compounds. Some of the general properties for ionic compounds are physical nature, melting and boiling points, solubility and conduction of electricity. Metal is extracted from its ore and then refining them for our use is known as metallurgy. Metals are refined by using  the method known as electrolytic refining. The end topic explains corrosion and prevention of corrosion.

Topics in Class 10 Science Chapter 3 Metals and Non-metals 

Metals and nonmetals: Properties of metals and non-metals; Reactivity series; Formation and properties of ionic compounds; Basic metallurgical processes; Corrosion and its prevention.

Chapter 4 – Carbon and its Compounds

In this chapter, you will be focussing on all the properties of carbon, the properties of its bond, and also learn in-depth about some of the important compounds of carbon. The covalent bond of carbon is a very interesting topic and explained in simple language in NCERT textbook. Along with this, the physical and chemical properties are discussed in-depth as these are very important topics in order to understand chemical reactions. This part plays an important role in creating strong basic concepts in organic chemistry. This will also help you in higher studies and even in competitive examinations like JEE and NEET.

Carbon forms covalent bonds with itself and other elements such as oxygen, hydrogen, sulphur, nitrogen and chlorine. Organic compounds are categorized into two parts: saturated and unsaturated carbon compounds. Saturated compounds are compounds with only a single bond. Unsaturated carbon compounds are those compounds who have a double or triple bond. The saturated compounds of carbon and hydrogen are methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane and hexane.

The chapter also explains some of the chemical properties of carbon and its compounds such as oxidation, combustion, addition reaction and substitution reaction. Ethanol and ethanoic acid are compounds of carbon which play an important role in our daily life. Soaps and detergents are studied with their chemical structures and properties and their difference is also discussed. Detergents are usually used to make shampoos and products which help as in our daily life cleaning the cloths.

Topics in class 10 science Chapter 4 -  Carbon and its Compounds

Carbon and its Compounds: Covalent bonding in carbon compounds,Versatile nature of carbon,Homologous series,  Nomenclature of carbon compounds containing functional groups (halogens, alcohol, ketones, aldehydes, alkanes and alkynes),  difference between saturated hydrocarbons and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Allotropes of carbon. Chains, branches and rings in carbon compounds and Isomers. Functional groups.

Chapter 5 – Life Processes

NCERT Class 10 Science Chapter 5 explains Life Processes. There are six life processes that all living organisms perform. We are movement, respiration, growth, reproduction, excretion and nutrition. In this chapter we are going to learn about nutrition which means the process of taking in food and using it for growth, metabolism and repair. Nutritional stages are ingestion, digestion, absorption, transport, assimilation, and excretion. Nutrition is more divided into Autotrophic Nutrition and Heterotrophic Nutrition. Autotrophic nutrition involves the intake of simple inorganic materials from our surroundings and using an external energy source like the Sun to synthesize complex high-energy organic material. Heterotrophic nutrition involves the intake of complex food material prepared by other organisms. Different types of heterotrophic nutrition are parasitic nutrition, saprophytic nutrition and holozoic nutrition. The next topic is all about  nutrition in human beings. The various steps of nutrition are ingestion, digestion, Oesophagus, stomach, small intestine, bile, absorption, assimilation and egestion. The next subtopic in this chapter is respiration in which the human respiratory system is explained. The different elements of the human respiratory system are lungs, bronchi, larynx, pharynx, etc. During the process of respiration, organic compounds such as glucose are broken down to provide energy which in the form of ATP. ATP is known as energy currency,used to provide energy for other reactions in the cell.

Respiration may be aerobic or anaerobic. Aerobic respiration makes more energy available to the organism. For plants, the soil is the closest and richest source of raw materials like nitrogen, phosphorus and other minerals. In human beings, the transport of materials such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, food and excretory products is a function of our circulatory system. The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood and blood vessels. In highly differentiated plants, transport of food, minerals, water and other materials is a function of the vascular tissue which consists of xylem and phloem. In human beings, excretory products in the form of soluble nitrogen compounds are removed by the nephrons in the kidneys. Plants use a variety of techniques to get rid of waste material.

Topics Class 10 Science Chapter 5 Life Processes 

Life processes: ‘Living Being’. Basic concept of nutrition, respiration, transport and excretion in plants and animals.

Chapter 6 – Control and Coordination

Chapter 6 of Class 10 teaches about control and coordination, which are the functions of the nervous system and hormones in our bodies. The responses of the nervous system can be categorized as a reflex action, voluntary action or involuntary action. The nervous system uses electrical impulses to transmit signals. It gets information from our sense organs and acts through our muscles accordingly. Chemical coordination has been seen in both plants and animals. Hormones produced in one part of an organism move to another part to get the desired effect. A feedback mechanism controls the action of the hormones.

Topics in Class 10 Science Chapter 6 Control and Coordination 

Control and co-ordination in animals and plants: Tropic movements in plants; Introduction of plant hormones; Control and co-ordination in animals: Nervous system; Voluntary, involuntary and reflex action; Chemical co-ordination: animal hormones.

Chapter 7 – How do Organisms Reproduce

Chapter 7 Science Class 10 is all about the reproduction of organisms. This chapter provides you with detailed knowledge in-depth about the two different types of reproduction.

Reproduction is one of the basic functions of life, is to be understood and differentiated from other types of multiplication and growth of any living being. Sexual and asexual reproduction is explained in detail, with differences from either side being emphasized on. 

Very interesting questions about animal and plant reproduction all are answered in this chapter.

Topics like different modes of reproduction and sexual reproduction are also discussed in this chapter.

While this chapter is not very difficult to understand, it does have a few tricky concepts and a lot to remember. With our NCERT Class 10 Science Solutions PDF, you will have a well-sequenced learning experience. The diagrams and flowcharts will definitely make it easy to remember for a very long time. You should make sure that you go through all the answers and explanations given in the solutions so that you do not miss even a single point. You can easily score well in this chapter if full focus and attention are given with enough revision.

There is no need to worry about topics and explanations being out of the syllabus or inaccurate. Our experts who write these answers have been working in the same field for a long time.

Topics in Class 10 Science Chapter 6 How do Organisms Reproduce?

How do Organisms Reproduce? The basic mechanism of reproduction, Types of reproduction, Asexual reproduction, Fission, Budding, Vegetative propagation, Regeneration, Sexual reproduction

Chapter 8 – Heredity 

In this chapter, you are going to learn about Heredity. The Rules for the Inheritance of Traits in human beings is based on both the father and the mother contributing practically equal amounts of genetic material to the child. This means that each trait can be influenced by both maternal and paternal DNA. Sex can be determined by different factors in different species. Changes in the non-reproductive tissues caused by environmental factors which are not inheritable. 

Topics in Class 10 Science Chapter 8 Heredity

Heredity and Evolution: Heredity; Mendel’s contribution – Laws for inheritance of traits: Sex determination.

Chapter 9 – Light Reflection and Refraction

In  NCERT Class 10 Science Chapter 9, you will study the phenomena of reflection and refraction of light using the straight-line propagation of light. These concepts will help you in the study of some of the optical phenomena in nature. The chapter also contains the reflection of light by spherical mirrors and refraction of light and their application in everyday life. Light is a source of energy which produces a sensation of vision in human beings. Light travels in straight lines. The different types of a spherical mirror, convex and concave are there in this chapter. The different terms related to spherical mirrors like the center of curvature, the radius of curvature etc., focus, pole, etc. are discussed with ray diagrams in this chapter. Uses of a spherical mirror are also discussed in this chapter. Mirror formula gives the correlation between the object-distance, image-distance, and focal length of a spherical mirror. The focal length of a spherical mirror is equal to half its radius of curvature.

Refraction is the bending of a wave when it enters one medium to another medium where its speed is different. The refraction of light when it passes from a fast medium to a slow medium bends the light rays toward the normal line between the two media. The phenomena of refraction can be easily understood by the concepts of the refractive index and optical density. The refractive index of a transparent medium is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to that second medium of greater density. In the case of a rectangular glass slab, the refraction takes place at both the air-glass interface and glass-air interface. The emergent ray is parallel to the direction of the incident ray. Lens formula gives the relation between the object-distance, image-distance, and the focal length of a spherical lens. Apart from the mirror we are going to learn about lenses, power of a lens is the reciprocal of its focal length. And the SI unit of power of a lens is dioptre.

Topics in Class 10 Science Chapter 9 Light Reflection and Refraction 

Light Reflection and Refraction : Reflection of light by curved surfaces; Images formed by spherical mirrors, center of curvature, principal axis, principal focus, focal length, mirror formula (Derivation not required),magnification. Refraction; Laws of refraction, refractive index.Refraction of light by spherical lens; Image formed by spherical lenses; Lens formula(Derivation not required); Magnification. Power of a lens.

Chapter 10 – The Human Eye and Colorful World

In the previous chapter, you have learnt about light and some of its properties. In this chapter, you will study some of the optical phenomena in nature. The chapter also discusses the  formation of the rainbow, splitting of white light and blue colour of the sky. And more about human eyes, the human eye is one of the most valuable and sensitive sense organs. It helps us to see the wonderful world and the colors around us. The ability of the eye to focus on both near and far objects, by adjusting its focal length, is called the accommodation of the eye. The smallest distance, at which the eye can see objects clearly without strain, is called the least distance of distinct vision. The distance of normal vision for young to adults is 25 cm. The common refractive defects of vision include myopia, hypermetropia and presbyopia. Myopia is short-sightedness-the image of distant objects is focused before the retina is corrected by using a concave lens of suitable power. Hypermetropia is (far-sightedness-the image of nearby objects is focussed beyond the retina) is corrected by using a convex lens of suitable power. The eye loses its power of accommodation at old age. Another term discussed is scattering, the splitting of white light into its component colours is called dispersion. Scattering of light causes the blue colour of the sky and the reddening of the Sun at sunrise and sunset.

Topics in Class 10 Science Chapter 10 The Human Eye and Colorful World :

Functioning of a lens in the human eye, defects of vision and their corrections, applications of spherical mirrors and lenses.
Refraction of light through a prism, dispersion of light, scattering of light, applications in daily life (excluding colour of the sun at sunrise and sunset).

Chapter 11 – Electricity

Electricity plays an important role in modern society. It is a controllable and convenient form of energy for a variety of uses in homes, schools, hospitals, industries, etc. It is a phenomenon related to the flow of charge. A flow of electrons moving through a conductor is called electric current. Usually, the direction of the current is assumed to be opposite to the direction of the electron flow. The SI unit of electric current is ampere. To make the electrons move in a circuit, we use a cell or a battery. A cell produces a potential difference across the terminals. It is measured in volts (V). Resistance is a property that resists the flow of electrons in a conductor. It controls the magnitude of the current. The SI unit of resistance is ohms. The definition of  Ohm’s Law is that the potential difference at the ends of a resistor is directly proportional to the current flowing through it, but assuming its temperature remains the same. The resistance of a conductor depends directly on its length and inversely proportional to area of material. 

Topics in 10 Science Chapter 11 Electricity 

Electric current, electric potential and potential difference , circuit diagram and electric current. Ohm’s law; Resistance, Resistivity, Factors on which the resistance of a conductor depends. Series combination of resistors, parallel combination of resistors and its applications in daily life. Heating effect of electric current and its applications in daily life. Electric power, Interrelation between P, V, I and R.

Chapter 12 – Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

In this chapter, you will study magnetic fields and electromagnetic effects, along with electromagnets and electric motors, which involve the magnetic effect of electric current and electric generators. Electric generators involve the electric effect of moving magnets. A compass needle is made up of small magnets. Its one end, which points towards the north, is called a north pole, and the other end, which points towards the south, is called a south pole. Field lines are used to represent a magnetic field. A field line is a path along which a hypothetical free north pole would tend to move. 

Topics in Class 10 Science Chapter 12 Magnetic Effects of Electric Current:

Magnetic effects of current: Magnetic field, field lines, field due to a current carrying conductor, field due to current carrying coil or solenoid; Force on current carrying conductor, Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, Direct current. Alternating current: frequency of AC. Advantage of AC over DC. Domestic electric circuits.

Chapter 13 – Our Environment

In this chapter, we will discuss how various components in the environment interact with each other and how we impact our environment. The various components of an ecosystem are interdependent.There is a chain process in our environment. After the chain process will discuss about the ozone layer. The food-chain is explained in detail with examples according to nature, such as in the grassland, in forest and in the pond. Human activities have impacted the environment badly. The use of chemicals like CFCs(chlorofluorocarbons) has endangered the ozone layer. Since the ozone layer protects our environment against the ultraviolet radiation from the Sun, this could damage the environment. The waste we produce may be biodegradable or non-biodegradable. 

Topics in Class 10 Science Chapter 13 Our Environment 

Our environment: Eco-system, Environmental problems, Ozone depletion, waste production and their solutions. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances.

Key Features of Class 10th Science NCERT Solutions 

NCERT Science Solutions Class 10 is the best study material and Revision Notes for any students preparing for boards because it delivers a wide range of solutions to all the NCERT questions given  in the syllabus. It gives detailed solutions to the three subjects of science, which are Physics, Chemistry and Biology. With the help of the solutions, you can instantly solve your doubts. These solutions are specially designed as per the NCERT curriculum to help you to prepare for your Class 10 board exam. Some of the key  features of NCERT Solutions of Class 10 Science are mentioned down below:

  • The solutions are solved in easily understandable language so that students don’t get confused while referring to them.

  • The answers are explained in detail for all the exercise questions mentioned in each chapter.

  • Solving these solutions will help you to solve the sample papers as well as the previous year question papers.

  • It boosts the student’s confidence level and also helps them work on their weaker section.

Frequently Asked Questions

There are a total 13 chapters in the NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science, out of which all the chapters are equally important. If you have any doubts, you can clarify it with your teachers or refer to online study materials, which are available for free.

You can find NCERT solution for science class 10 for your board exam on our Esaral website, which is available in very easy language that you can understand easily.


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