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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Hindi - Sanchayan

JEE Mains & Advanced

We all enjoy watching movies and listening to songs in Hindi, but sometimes we feel worried and nervous before a Hindi exam. Hindi is a wonderful language with a lot of stories and knowledge, but understanding it fully is possible only if we know the language well. It's an important part of our identity and is used for talking to many people in our country. Not knowing Hindi in India could mean missing out on great literature and facing challenges in everyday conversations.

NCERT books are made to help students learn useful things for everyday life. They're created by the best teachers and help us understand important ideas and skills. The solutions for Class 10 Sanchayan cover all three chapters: Harihar Kaka, Sapno ke Din, and Topi Sukhla. The questions in exams come from these NCERT books, so it's vital to practice the exercises from each chapter before the exam.

eSaral is a great resource for preparing for exams. It offers NCERT Solutions, sample papers, and past years' solved papers in PDF format. You can easily use these resources anytime, anywhere, even without the internet. So, with the help of these materials, you can feel more confident and ready for your Hindi exams and do well in them.

Class 10 Hindi Sanchayan NCERT Solutions

Here is a list of chapters that are included in NCERT Class 10 Hindi Textbook Sanchayan:

NCERT Solutions Class 10 Hindi Sanchayan All Chapters

Chapter 1 - Harihar Kaka

Chapter 2 - Sapno Ke Se Din

Chapter 3 - Topi Shukla

Here is an overview of each chapter included in NCERT Class 10 Hindi Textbook Sanchayan:

Chapter 1 - Harihar Kaka

The author describes a deep connection with Harihar Kaka, driven by affection for his behavior and thoughts. There were two main reasons behind this affection. First, Harihar Kaka was the author's neighbor. Second, the author's mother had told him that Harihar Kaka had loved the author since childhood. Even when the author grew up, his first friendship was with Harihar Kaka. In the author's village, there was a large temple dedicated to Thakur Ji, known as Thakurbari or the temple. People sought Thakur Ji's blessings for various desires, and when their wishes were fulfilled, they offered money, jewelry, and grains. Harihar Kaka also donated a small portion of his field to Thakur Ji, a tradition that became common.

The village was now recognized not by its name but because of the prominent temple. Harihar Kaka stopped going to the temple due to his circumstances. Occasionally, the author also visited the temple to calm his mind. However, the ascetics there didn't appeal to him as they only focused on indulging in food and resting. They engaged the villagers in service work. The author states that his village was known for the temple, which was the biggest and most famous in the region.

The author elaborates on Harihar Kaka, mentioning that he had three brothers, all married with children. Initially, Harihar Kaka received attention, but later, people stopped asking about him. The author highlights that if Harihar Kaka's health deteriorated, he faced difficulties alone, despite his extended family. Even in sickness, no one cared for him. One day, his nephew brought a friend from the city, and they all enjoyed a meal prepared by Harihar Kaka. However, no one acknowledged his efforts. This made Harihar Kaka angry, and he vented his frustration, questioning whether his brothers' wives thought he was providing free meals. He emphasized that even the grains from his field ended up in their households.

The rewritten and extended paragraph emphasizes the close bond between the author and Harihar Kaka, shaped by their shared experiences and the village's connection to the temple. It also underscores Harihar Kaka's sacrifices and the lack of recognition he received from his family.

After all these events had passed, Harihar Kaka began to live with his brothers' families again. They imposed a 24-hour watch on him. To the extent that if Harihar Kaka had to go to the village for any reason, four or five people always accompanied him, armed. The author states that everything that happened with Harihar Kaka transformed him into a cunning and wise farmer compared to his simple and innocent nature. He began to understand that the sudden change in his brothers' behavior towards him, the respect, honor, and protection they provided, was not out of genuine affection but due to their interest in his wealth. Otherwise, they wouldn't even bother asking about Harihar Kaka. Since Harihar Kaka's return from the temple, his brothers and other relatives were contemplating legally transferring their property to his nephews' names. They believed that until Harihar Kaka did so, they would remain under the scrutiny of the monk. When Harihar Kaka's brothers grew tired of reasoning with him, they began to pressure and threaten him. One night, Harihar Kaka's brothers started behaving similarly to the monk and his associates. They threatened him, saying that wherever they needed Harihar Kaka's thumbprint on paper, they would forcefully mark it; otherwise, they would harm him within the confines of the house, and the villagers would be kept in the dark about it.

Now, Harihar Kaka was subjected to physical abuse by his brothers. As Harihar Kaka's family and extended relatives tried to convince the villagers that this was a family matter and that they should stay away, Mahant Ji arrived with police officers. The police began thoroughly searching the entire house. From inside the house, Harihar Kaka was brought out in a condition worse than that of his temple incident. Harihar Kaka explained that his brothers had treated him very poorly, forcing him to put his thumbprint on numerous papers against his will, subjecting him to severe beatings.

Chapter 2 - Sapno Ke Se Din

The author mentions that during his childhood, the condition of the children who played with him was similar to his own. All their feet were bare, wearing tattered underwear, torn shirts from various places with missing buttons, and disheveled hair. After playing in the dirt, with scratches on their feet from various places, mud stuck between their knees and ankles, and blood mixed with sand over the flesh on the back of their thighs, they would go back to their respective homes. Surprisingly, instead of feeling pity, their mothers and sisters would beat them even more severely. Some children's fathers were so furious that when they started beating the child, they wouldn't notice that blood was flowing from the child's nose and mouth, nor would they ask where the child was hurt. Yet, even after such harsh beatings, the next day, all the children would return to play again.

The author narrates that he understood this aspect of children's minds when he was undergoing training to become a school teacher. There, he studied the psychology of children's minds. Some families' children never went to school, and those who did go, due to their lack of interest in studies, would sometimes throw their school books into the pond. Even their parents didn't force them to go to school. Even the shopkeeper who sold rations and those who bought and sold farmers' crops didn't consider sending their children to school necessary. They believed that once their child grew a little older, they would teach them the ancient Punjabi script and how to keep accounts by learning from Pandit Ghanshyam Das, or they would teach them to write accounts and manage their shop.

In the author's childhood, studying in the small rooms of schools didn't feel any less than imprisonment to anyone. The lush green grass and the strong fragrance of flowers were more enticing. He recalls that at that time, different types of flowers, including roses, marigolds, and jasmine, would bloom in the small gardens of schools. These flowers were so beautiful and fragrant that the author and his friends would occasionally secretly pick some flowers from there. He doesn't remember what they used to do with those flowers afterward. Maybe they put them in their pockets, and when their mothers were washing them, they might have taken them out and thrown them away, or the author and his friends would playfully feed them to each other like goats or cows when they returned from school.

The author reflects that during his time, schools would only have about one and a half to two months of actual studying at the beginning of the year, after which the one-and-a-half to two-month-long holidays would start. Every year, during the holidays, the author would go to his maternal grandmother's house with his mother. His grandmother would treat him with love, and serve him milk, yogurt, and butter. Until noon, the author and his friends would swim in the pond and then return to his grandmother's place, asking for the food they craved. The author recalls that in the year he couldn't go to his grandmother's house, he would go to the pond located far from his home.

The author and his friends would often take off their clothes and jump into the water, then come out of the water and run to a sandy mound, lying on the sand, heating their wet bodies with warm sand. After that, they would run to a higher spot and jump into the pond from there. The author can't recall whether they used to repeat this sequence of running, rolling in the sand, and then jumping into the pond five to ten times or fifteen to twenty times.

The author shares that as their vacation days started coming to an end, they would begin counting the days left. Due to fear, sometimes they would forget about playing and bathing in the pond alongside their friends. They would start thinking about the assignments they had to complete during the holidays. The fear of getting punished at school increased as the fear of not finishing their holiday tasks grew. The author had classmates who believed that facing the teachers' punishments during the holidays was more tolerable than doing holiday assignments. In such times, their leader was a boy named Om, who had a very different way of speaking, scolding, and disciplining. He looked different from everyone else. With his unusually large head, which looked like he had placed a watermelon on his small stature, his face resembled that of a monkey's baby. When a fight occurred, he would fight not with his hands, but by using his head.

The author mentions that the school he attended was very small. It had only nine small rooms arranged in the shape of the English letter 'H'. The first room on the right belonged to the Headmaster, Mr. Madanmohan Sharma. During the morning prayer, he would come out and look at the boys standing in straight lines according to their height, and his fair face would beam with happiness. Master Pritam Chand, who was in charge of punishments (PT Master), would stand behind the lines of boys and observe who wasn't standing correctly in the line. Due to his stern demeanor and the fear of scolding and punishments, the author and his friends would pay extra attention to stand properly in a straight line. Master Pritam Chand was a strict teacher, but Headmaster Sharma had a completely different nature. He taught English to the fifth and eighth grades. No one remembered ever seeing or hearing him scold or punish someone due to a mistake.

The author reminisces that at the beginning of each school year, he would receive used books. Headmaster Sharma used to make a wealthy boy from the school read those books to him. In April every year, when the new academic year would start, Sharma Ji would bring the books that were a year older for the author. No one in the author's family was interested in studies. If new books had to be brought, they might have used the excuse to stop the author's studies in the third or fourth grade.

The author notes that during his school days, the world was in the midst of the Second World War. When officers came to recruit people into the army, some jokers would also come along.

The author recalls that during school days, they had never seen Master Pritam Chand smile or laugh. His short height, thin yet strong body, face filled with maternal gifts, freckled face, sharp and swift eyes, khaki uniform, and shoes with broad soles - all these things used to intimidate the children. The author could never forget the day when Master Pritam Chand started teaching their fourth-grade class Persian. It had been only a week since they had started, and Pritam Chand asked them to memorize a word and instructed that the next day they would listen to it only through their mouth. The next day, when Master Pritam Chand asked one after another to recite, not a single boy could do so. In anger, he yelled and grabbed the students by their ears, instructing them to keep their backs straight. Just before the author's class was about to be punished, Headmaster Sharma wasn't present at school. What Pritam Chand did upon his arrival was unbearable. Perhaps it was the first time the author experienced Pritam Chand's crude and wild behavior, and he became furious.

The author shares that after Headmaster Sharma suspended Pritam Chand, it was evident that Pritam Chand couldn't step into the school until he received clearance from higher authorities. Yet, whenever the bell for Persian class rang, the hearts of all the children, including the author and his classmates, would pound as if their chests were about to burst.

The author states that for several weeks, PT Master didn't come to school. The author and his friends found out that he had rented a room above a shop in the market, which had small windows from all sides. For some seventh or eighth-grade students, it wasn't a concern at all that he might get expelled. As he used to earlier feed soaked almonds to the caged parrots multiple times a day, they thought he was now living the same way. The author and his friends were amazed that the same Pritam Chand, who would mercilessly beat students with a cane, was now speaking sweetly to his parrots. The author questioned whether the parrots didn't fear the fire of his anger, as they did. However, those insights weren't clear to the author and his friends at that time, as they were quite young. They simply found this transformation of Pritam Chand to be miraculous.

Chapter 3 - Topi Shukla

In the given Chapter, the author wants to tell the readers a story about Topi. Therefore, the author explains that he won't narrate Iffan's story completely, but only as much as is essential for the story of Topi. Iffan's story is a crucial part without which Topi's story might remain incomplete. These two are characters in the author's tale. One is named Balbhadra Narayan Shukla, and the other is named Syed Jargam Muratuza. One is affectionately called "Topi'' by everyone, and the other is called "Iffan".

Iffan's grandmother lived in Purab (a region). She was nine or ten years old when she got married and moved to Lucknow. However, as long as she lived, she continued speaking in the Purabi language. Urdu of Lucknow was like the language of her in-laws for her. She clung to the language of her parents because there was no one else around her who could understand her heart's words. When her son got married, she wished to celebrate with music, but how could music and celebration be allowed in the house of Islamic scholars? Her heart sank, and she felt sad. However, on Iffan's sixth-day celebration, she celebrated with great enthusiasm.

The author explains that Iffan's grandmother was not the daughter of an Islamic scholar but the daughter of a landlord. She had enjoyed milk and ghee, but after moving to Lucknow, she yearned for yogurt. Whenever she visited her parent's house, she indulged in it fully. She kept her maternal language alive because apart from this language, no one around her understood her feelings. When she returned from her parent's house, she often had to start acting like a Moulvi (Islamic scholar).

Iffan loved his grandmother dearly. He also loved his father, mother, elder sister Nuzhat, and younger sister. However, he loved his grandmother the most. His mother scolded him sometimes and even spanked him occasionally. His elder sister scolded and spanked him like his mother. His father sometimes turned their home into a courtroom and pronounced judgments. Nuzhat would draw pictures on his cups whenever she got the chance. Only his grandmother never hurt him emotionally. Even at night, she would tell him stories of Bahram Dakoo, Anar Pari, Barah Burj, Ameer Hamza, Gulbakawali, Hatim Tai, and Panch Phulla Rani.

Iffan's grandmother's dialect felt like a sweet melody to him, just as Topi's grandmother's dialect felt to him. Iffan's grandmother saw Topi as her own mother's child. The meaning of saying that Iffan's grandmother saw Topi at her mother's party was that Topi's mother and Iffan's grandmother spoke in the same manner. However, Topi didn't like his grandmother. He even hated her. He didn't understand what language she spoke. To him, his grandmother's language and Iffan's father's language sounded the same. The author says that whenever Topi visited Iffan's house, he tried to sit with his grandmother. Topi felt that his grandmother's words were as sweet as sugar. It felt as delightful as munching on dried mango slices. It felt as satisfying as eating sesame-coated delicacies. The author adds that whenever Iffan's grandmother was present, the story moved forward with a simple question: What is his mother doing? At first, Topi couldn't understand what a mother was, but later, he learned that a mother is what is referred to as "ammi." When Topi heard the word "ammi," he found it very pleasing. Just like how ripe mango pulp tastes enjoyable, he repeated this word again and again. "Ammi." "Abbu." "Baji." He liked these words a lot.

One day, Topi found that he liked baingan bhurta (eggplant dish) a little more than usual. Ramdulari (Topi's mother) was serving the food. Topi said, "Amma, can I have more baingan bhurta?" Upon hearing these words, everyone sitting around the table was surprised. They paused while eating and looked at Topi's face. Topi's grandmother, Subhadra Devi, got up from the dining table at that moment, and Topi's mother, Ramdulari, scolded Topi severely. She repeatedly asked if he would go to Iffan's house now. Every time, Topi answered with a simple "yes." Munni Babu and Bhairav, who were Topi's brothers, observed Topi's beating as a spectacle.

The author mentions that when Topi was being beaten, Munni Babu added to the drama by saying that one day, he saw it eating kebabs at Rahim Kababchi's shop. The truth was that Topi had seen Munni Babu eating kebabs and Munni Babu had given him a small bribe to keep quiet about it. That day, Topi was beaten so much that his whole body hurt. The next day, when Topi went to school and met Iffan, he told him everything that had happened the previous day. Both of them left the geography class and went outside. Iffan bought bananas from Pancham's shop because Topi hardly touched anything outside of fruits.

Topi innocently asked Iffan if it couldn't be possible for them to swap grandmothers. His grandmother could come to Iffan's house, and Iffan's grandmother could come to Topi's house. Topi believed that his grandmother's language was just like Iffan's family's language. In response, Iffan told Topi that his wish couldn't come true. His father would not agree to that, as his grandmother was his father's mother as well. While Topi and Iffan were talking, Iffan's servant arrived and informed them that Iffan's grandmother had passed away. When Iffan visited Topi's house that evening, it was quiet, filled with people. However, due to Topi's grandmother's absence, the house felt empty for Topi. Even though Topi didn't know his grandmother's name, he had formed a strong bond with Iffan's grandmother. Both were strangers in each other's homes, but they had eliminated each other's loneliness.

Topi sympathetically told Iffan that if Iffan's grandmother had passed away instead of his own, it would have been better. The author states that on the 10th of October, 1954, Topi swore that he would never be friends with a boy whose father worked in a job where he kept changing. The 10th of October, 1954, holds great importance in Topi's life because, on this date, Iffan's father moved to Moradabad. After Topi's grandmother's death, he felt lonely, and with Iffan's departure, he felt even more isolated. As the three sons of Collector Thakur Harinam Singh, Dabbu was too young, Beelu was too old, and Guddu spoke only English, none of them became Topi's friend. Now neither Iffan nor Iffan's grandmother was there to understand him. There was a servant named Sita in the house, and she understood his sorrow. So, Topi began spending time with Sita.

All of Topi's friends were in the tenth grade. So, he would meet them and play with them. He didn't have any friends among the students in the ninth grade, with whom he studied. Whenever he sat in the class, it felt strange to him. Somehow, he managed this year. However, when he had to sit in the ninth grade even in the eleventh year, he became like a wet lump of clay. Now, he didn't have any friends left in the tenth grade either. The students who were in the eleventh grade last year were now in the tenth grade. Those who were in the seventh grade last year had become friends with Topi. Among all of them, Topi started appearing as quite a mature person.

Wahid, who was the fastest boy in the class, asked Topi why he played with those people. He should make friends with the eighth-grade students. They would move ahead to the tenth grade, and as Topi had to stay with the eighth-grade students, it would be good for him to be friends with them. This hurt Topi deeply, and it felt like his heart had shattered. At that moment, he swore that this year, he would show that he was stronger than Typhoid, no matter how severe it was. But within the year, elections were announced. Topi's father, Dr. Bhrgu Narayan, the oil seller, stood for election. How could anyone focus on studies when their home was involved in elections? When Topi's father lost the election, there was some peace at home, and Topi realized that he had limited time for his exams. He began to concentrate on his studies.

However, the atmosphere at Topi's home was not conducive to studying. In such an environment, how could anyone study? So, passing the exams was essential for Topi. After spending two years in the same class, when he finally passed, his grandmother exclaimed, "Wow! May God protect Topi from the evil eye. He has picked up a good pace." After passing the exams in the third year, albeit in the third division, well, at least he passed.

Frequently Asked Questions

Question 1: By studying only from NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Hindi - Sanchayan, students can secure good marks?

Answer 1: NCERT Solutions for Class 19 Hindi - Sanchayan is an important source of study material to be referred to as an aid to the NCERT textbook but individually they are not enough they can be used with previous year's question paper and sample questions prepared according to NCERT pattern.


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