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NEET Biology Syllabus

JEE Mains & Advanced

NEET Biology for MBBS Exams (Introduction)

NEET UG 2024 syllabus of Biology will be based upon NCERT books of Biology for Class 11 & Class 12. The Biology syllabus carries the maximum weightage of marks in the NEET exam. Therefore, to excel in the exam, it is important to understand the Chapter-wise weightage. The Biology syllabus has two important sections: Botany & Zoology, each of which is worth 50 marks. In total, 360 marks can be achieved by trying 90 questions. Therefore, it is essential to thoroughly study the entire syllabus which includes the topics from Classes 11 & Class 12. 

To improve your chances of success in NEET 2024 exam, you should focus on the following:

1. Understanding NEET Biology Topics

2. Reading NEET Biology Books & Notes

3. Keeping up to date with Biology syllabus updates for Medical Entrance Exams.

There are two branches in the Biology syllabus for NEET Biology for 2024. Botany is related to the study of plant life while Zoology is related to animal biology. 

The Biology Syllabus for NEET 2024 is designed to evaluate candidates on the basis of the topics covered in their class 11 and class 12 school curriculum. 

NEET Chapter Wise Biology Syllabus 

The NEET Biology Class 11 Syllabus is a crucial part of NEET preparation. The NEET Biology Syllabus for Class 11 outlines the main subjects and subtopics to be studied by Class 11 students in order to excel in Biology section of NEET exam.

In this article, we will provide an overview of NEET Biology Biology Syllabus For Class 11. We will cover the main topics to be studied as well as the subtopics students should focus on during their NEET preparation.

                                          NEET Biology Syllabus 2024  Class 11

Diversity in Living World

1. What is living?;


  • Biodiversity;

  • Need for classification;

  • Three domains of life;

  • Taxonomy & Systematics;

  • Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature;

  • Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria,

  • Botanical gardens.


2. Five kingdom classification;

  • Salient features and classification of Monera;

  • Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.


3. Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae,


  • Bryophytes

  • Pteridophytes,

  • Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category);

  • Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).


4. Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to class level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).

Structural Organization in Animals and Plants

1. Morphology and modifications;

  • Tissues;

  • Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and racemose, flower, fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).


2 Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)



Cell Structure and Function

  • Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life;

  • Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell;

  • Plant cell and animal cell; Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall;

  • Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum,

  • Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles;

  • mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultrastructure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.


2 Chemical constituents of living cells:

  • Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.


3 B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.

Plant Physiology

1. Transport in plants: Movement of water, gasses and nutrients;

  • Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport;

  • Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis;

  • Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation;

  • Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata;

  • Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis;

  • Diffusion of gasses (brief mention).



2 Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role;


Deficiency symptoms;

Mineral toxicity;

Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition;

Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.


3 Photosynthesis:


Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place;

pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea);

Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis;

Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis;

Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.

4. Respiration:


Exchange gasses;

Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic),

TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated;

Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.

5. Plant growth and development:


Seed germination;

Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate;

Conditions of growth;

Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell;

Growth regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA;

Seed dormancy;

Vernalisation;

Photoperiodism

Human Physiology

1. Digestion and absorption;

Alimentary canal and digestive glands;

Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones;

Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats;

Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Egestion;

Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhoea.


2 Breathing and Respiration:


Respiratory organs in animals (recall only);

Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gasses, transport of gasses and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes;

Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.


3 Body fluids and circulation:


Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood;

Composition of lymph and its function;

Human circulatory system-Structure of the human heart and blood vessels;

Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation;

Regulation of 38 cardiac activity;

Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.


5. Excretory products and their elimination:


Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism;

Human excretory system-structure and function;

Urine formation, Osmoregulation;

Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion;

Disorders;

Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.


5 Locomotion and Movement:


Types of movement- ciliary, flagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction;

Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus);

Joints;

Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis,

Tetany,

Muscular dystrophy,

Arthritis,

Osteoporosis,

Gout.


6 Neural control and coordination:


Neuron and nerves;

Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, and visceral nervous system;

Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action;

Sense organs;

Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.

7. Chemical coordination and regulation:


Endocrine glands and hormones;

Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads;

Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea); Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders, e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).

(Imp: Diseases and disorders mentioned above to be dealt with briefly.)

NEET Biology Syllabus 2024 for Class 12

The Class 12 Biology syllabus is based on the fundamental concepts taught in Class 11. It covers advanced topics and fundamental principles of Biology. The syllabus covers various topics such as Human reproduction, Evolution, Ecology, Biotechnology, Genetics, and others.

The key subjects and subtopics to focus on during the NEET Biology preparation.

                                          NEET Biology Syllabus For Class 12

Reproduction

Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species;

Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual;

Asexual reproduction; Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation;

vegetative propagation in plants.


2 Sexual reproduction in flowering plants:


Flower structure; Development of male and female gametophytes;

Pollination-types, agencies and examples;

Outbreeding devices;

Pollen-Pistil interaction;

Double fertilisation;

Post fertilisation events-Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit;

Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy,

polyembryony;

Significance of seed and fruit formation.


3 Human Reproduction:


Male and female reproductive systems;

Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis;

Menstrual cycle;

Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation;

Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea);

Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).


4 Reproductive health:


Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD);

Birth control-Need and Methods, Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis;

Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

Genetics and Evolution

1. Heredity and variation:

Mendelian Inheritance;

Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy; Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; Chromosome theory of inheritance; Chromosomes and genes;

Sex determination-In

humans, birds, honey bee;

Linkage and crossing over; Sex-linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia;

Chromosomal disorders in humans; Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.


2. Molecular basis of Inheritance:


Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material;

Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging;

DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation;

Gene expression and regulation-Lac Operon;

Genome and human genome project;

DNA fingerprinting.


3. Evolution: Origin of life;

Biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution from Paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence);

Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution; Mechanism of evolution variation (Mutation and Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples and types of natural selection;

Gene flow and genetic drift;

Hardy-Weinberg’s principle;

Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.

Biology and Human Welfare

1. Health and Disease;

Pathogens;

Parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis. Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm);

Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.


2.Improvement in food production;

Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein,

Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.


3. Microbes in human welfare:


In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilisers.

Biotechnology and Its Applications

1. Principles and process of Biotechnology:

Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).


2. Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture:


Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy;

Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops;

Transgenic Animals; Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.

Ecology and Environment

1. Organisms and environment:

Habitat and niche; Population and ecological adaptations;

Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism;

Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.


2. Ecosystem:


Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition;

Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy; Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous);

Ecological succession; Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.


3. Biodiversity and its conservation:


Concept of Biodiversity;

Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity;

Loss of Biodiversity; Biodiversity conservation;

Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.


4. Environmental issues:


Air pollution and its control;

Water pollution and its control;

Agrochemicals and their effects;

Solid waste management;

Radioactive waste management;

Greenhouse effect and global warning;

Ozone depletion;

Deforestation;

Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

NEET Chapter Wise Weightage for Biology

There are 100 questions in the Biology Section of NEET exam. Each question has 4 marks and the total number of marks in the Biology section is 360. Based on the past trends and the experience of NEET aspirants, we can say that Biology section is scoring section of NEET exam.

Questions in the Biology section are easier and can be answered in less time. Most of the questions in the Biology section are direct questions from NCERT books of biology. Therefore, you need to fully prepare yourself with a NCERT based syllabus.

There are two section of biology which are zoology and botany. Both of them are equally important. To perform well in the NEET exam, you need to clear your concepts and be clear about each concept in the NEET Biology syllabus.

Importance of the NEET Biology syllabus

The NEET (National Eligibility cum Entrance Test) Biology syllabus is of great importance for several reasons, especially for students aspiring to pursue undergraduate medical and dental courses in India.

NEET is the primary entrance examination for admission to undergraduate medical and dental programs in India. The Biology section carries a significant weightage in the NEET exam, and a good understanding of the syllabus is crucial for scoring well.

Biology is the foundation of medical and allied health sciences. A strong grasp of concepts in areas such as Human Physiology, Genetics, Ecology, and other biological disciplines is essential for success in medical studies.

Tips for Completing the NEET Biology syllabus on time

Completing the NEET Biology syllabus on time requires effective planning, consistent effort, and strategic study methods.

  • Divide the entire NEET Biology syllabus into smaller topics and allocate specific time slots for each.

  • Identify the topics that carry more weightage in the NEET exam. Allocate more time to high-scoring and frequently asked topics.

  • Allocate a fixed number of hours each day for Biology study. Consistency is key to mastering the vast syllabus.

How can eSaral Courses help you cover the NEET Biology syllabus in time and score more marks?

  • eSaral offer a comprehensive coverage of the NEET Biology syllabus, ensuring that all topics of biology of class 11th and 12th  are included.

  • eSaral courses are usually organized into a structured curriculum, making it easier for students to follow a step-by-step approach to crack the NEET 2024 exam.

  • eSaral provides video lectures of biology in such a way that these are effective in explaining complex biological concepts, making it easier for students to understand visually.

Frequently Asked Questions

Question 1: What is the NEET Biology syllabus?

Answer 1: The NEET Biology syllabus encompasses topics from both Class 11th and 12th biology, covering diverse aspects such as diversity in living organisms, cell structure and function, reproduction, genetics, ecology, and more.

Question 2: How is the Biology syllabus divided between Class 11th and 12th?

Answer 2: The syllabus is evenly divided between Class 11th and 12th. Class 11th topics include Diversity in Living World, Structural Organization in Plants and Animals, Cell Structure and Function, Plant Physiology, and Human physiology. Class 12th topics include Reproduction, Genetics and Evolution, Biology and Human Welfare, Biotechnology, and Ecology.

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