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Political Parties Class 10 Notes

Class 10
Political Parties Class 10 Notes

Political parties are an integral part of modern democratic societies. They play a vital role in shaping and directing the political process. In this article on "Political Parties Class 10 Notes," we will discuss the significance of political parties, their formation, and functioning. We will also explore the role of political parties in elections and the government, their ideology, and the challenges faced by them in the contemporary world. Understanding the concept of political parties is crucial for any student of social science, and this article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the same.

Tabulate four national parties and four regional parties of India.

National Parties:
Indian National Congress; BJP (Bharatiya Janta Party); CPI (Communist Party of India); CPI (M) (Communist Party of India —Marxist).
Regional Parties:
Akali Dal (Punjab); DMK (Tamil Nadu); RJD (Rashtriya Janta Dal) (Bihar); Shiv Sena (Maharashtra).

Components of a political party  -Political Parties Class 10 Notes

  • The leaders,
  • active members and
  • the followers.

Partisanship -Political Parties Class 10 Notes

Partisanship refers to a strong support for a particular political party, ideology, or agenda. It is the tendency to view political issues through the lens of one's own party or ideology, rather than objectively assessing the facts and arguments. Partisanship can be both a positive and a negative force in politics.

Political Parties Class 10 Notes- On the positive side, partisanship can provide a sense of identity and belonging to a group of like-minded individuals who share common values and beliefs. It can also foster healthy competition and debate, as different parties and ideologies offer alternative solutions to complex problems. Additionally, partisanship can encourage political participation and engagement, as people become invested in the success of their chosen party or ideology.

However, partisanship can also have negative effects on politics. It can lead to polarization, where people become more entrenched in their views and less willing to compromise or work together with those from different parties or ideologies. This can result in gridlock and an inability to make progress on important issues. Partisanship can also lead to a lack of critical thinking and blind loyalty, as people prioritize their party or ideology over objective analysis.

Role of an opposition party - Political Parties Class 10 Notes

An opposition party plays a crucial role in a democratic setup. It provides a platform for an alternate view and acts as a check on the ruling party. Here are some of the key roles that an opposition party plays:

  1. Holding the government accountable: One of the primary roles of an opposition party is to hold the ruling party accountable for its actions. This is done by raising questions and concerns in the parliament, and by putting pressure on the government to justify its policies and decisions.

  2. Providing a check on the ruling party: An opposition party acts as a check on the ruling party by scrutinizing its actions and policies, and by offering an alternative view. This helps to ensure that the government remains accountable to the people.

  3. Offering an alternative vision: An opposition party is not just there to criticize the government, but also to offer an alternative vision for the future. This can include policy proposals and ideas that the government can adopt to improve the lives of the people.

  4. Representing the interests of the people: An opposition party represents the interests of the people who did not vote for the ruling party. This helps to ensure that the voices of all sections of the society are heard and their concerns are addressed.

Political Parties Class 10 Notes- In conclusion, an opposition party plays a crucial role in a democracy by holding the government accountable, providing a check on the ruling party, offering an alternative vision, and representing the interests of the people.

Source of inspiration of Bharatiya Janata Party:

The source of inspiration of Bharatiya Janata Party is the ancient Indian culture and values. Cultural nationalism (Hindutva) is an important element in its conception of Indian nationhood and politics.

Source of inspiration of Bahujan Samaj Party:

Political Parties Class 10 Notes- The Bahujan Samaj Party draws inspiration from the ideas and teachings of Sahu Maharaj, Mahatma Phule, Periyar Ramaswami Naicker and Babasaheb Ambedkar. It stands for the interest and welfare of the dalits and other oppressed people.

Ideology of Indian National Congress:

Under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru, the Indian National Congress sought to build a modem secular democratic republic in India. The party propagates secularism and welfare of the weaker sections and minorities of society. It supports new economic reforms but with a human face.

There are three kinds of party systems as given below:

  • One-party system. Some countries allow only one party to control and run the government. For instance, in China, only the Communist Party is allowed to rule.
  • Two-party system. In this system, although several parties may exist, contest the elections and win a few seats in the national legislatures, only two main parties have a serious chance of winning a majority of seats to form the government. For example, the USA and the UK.
  • Multi-party system. In this system, the government is formed by various parties coming together in a coalition. When several parties in a multi-party system join hands for the purpose of contesting elections and winning power, it is called an alliance or a front. In the 2004 parliamentary elections in India, there were three major alliances—the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), and the Left Front. This system, on the one hand, leads to political instability, but at the same time, it allows for a variety of interests and opinions to enjoy political representation. - Political Parties Class 10 Notes

Efforts to reform political parties are:- Political Parties Class 10 Notes

  • The government has amended the Constitution to prevent elected MLAs and MPs from switching parties, resulting in the loss of their seat in the Legislative Assembly or Parliament. This law has effectively reduced the number of defections.
  • The Supreme Court has issued an order requiring every candidate who runs for election to file an affidavit disclosing their assets and any pending criminal cases against them. This has ensured that this information is accessible to the public and has reduced the influence of money and criminals in politics.
  • The Election Commission has mandated that political parties must conduct their organizational elections and file their Income-tax Returns. This move has increased transparency in the functioning of political parties and ensured that they comply with legal requirements.

 Role of money and muscle power grows during elections:

  1. Introduction: The role of money and muscle power in elections has become a major concern in modern-day democracies.

  2. Candidates with financial resources: In many cases, candidates with financial resources are able to spend large sums of money on advertising, rallies, and other campaign-related expenses. This gives them an unfair advantage over other candidates who may not have access to the same level of financial resources.

  3. Use of muscle power: Muscle power is also commonly used during elections. This includes the use of violence, intimidation, and other coercive tactics to influence voters or to prevent voters from voting for a particular candidate.

  4. Impact on democracy: The use of money and muscle power during elections has a negative impact on democracy. It undermines the principle of fair and free elections, and makes it difficult for candidates who do not have access to these resources to compete on a level playing field.

  5. Measures taken: To address this issue, various measures have been taken in different countries. These include limiting campaign spending, strict regulations on the use of money and resources during elections, and efforts to prevent the use of muscle power.

  6. Conclusion: It is important for democracies to ensure that elections are free and fair, and that all candidates have an equal opportunity to compete for elected positions. This requires addressing the issue of money and muscle power in elections, and taking steps to prevent its negative impact on democracy.

Dynastic succession - Political Parties Class 10 Notes

  • Dynastic succession refers to the practice of a family passing down power and authority from one generation to the next.
  • In politics, dynastic succession refers to the phenomenon of family members of prominent politicians or leaders being given important positions or roles within the political party or government.
  • This practice is quite common in many countries, including India, where political parties are often led by members of prominent political families.
  • Critics of dynastic succession argue that it goes against the principles of democracy and meritocracy, as family members are given important positions based on their lineage rather than their abilities.
  • Proponents of dynastic succession argue that it allows for continuity and stability in governance, as family members are likely to share the same political ideology and vision as their predecessors.
  • However, dynastic succession can also lead to a concentration of power in the hands of a few families, and can stifle the emergence of new talent and ideas within a political party or government.
  • In recent years, there has been a growing demand for political parties to adopt a more merit-based approach to leadership and to move away from dynastic succession.
  • Some political parties have responded to this demand by introducing internal democratic processes for selecting leaders and candidates, while others continue to rely on family ties and connections.

Functions of Political Party:

  • Political parties contest elections to form government.
  • They put forward different policies and programmes for the voters to choose from.
  • The party which wins the election forms the government and is expected to follow its policies and programmes.
  • Political parties play a decisive role in making laws for the country.
  • The executive body is formed by people from the ruling party.
  • A party which does not get a majority or come under the majority coalition, needs to play the role of opposition.
  • Political parties shape public opinion by raising and highlighting issues in the legislature and media.
  • Political parties provide people with access to government machinery and welfare schemes implemented by governments.


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