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Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Notes

Class 10
Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Notes

Popular struggles and movements are an integral part of any democratic society, as they provide a means for citizens to voice their concerns and demand change. From the civil rights movement in the United States to the pro-democracy protests in Hong Kong, these movements have shaped the course of history and brought about significant social and political changes. In class 10, students learn about the various forms of popular struggles and movements, including pressure groups, sectional interest groups, public interest groups, and movement groups. Through studying these examples, students gain a deeper understanding of how citizens can work together to bring about change and how democratic societies can be strengthened through citizen participation. In this article,Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Notes we will provide a comprehensive overview of popular struggles and movements, with a focus on class 10 notes.

Movement for Democracy in Nepal

In April 2006, the people of Nepal initiated a popular movement to regain popular control over the government from the king. The Seven Party Alliance (SPA), comprising all major political parties in parliament, called for a four-day strike in Kathmandu and demanded the restoration of parliament, the transfer of power to an all-party government, and the formation of a new constituent assembly. On 24 April 2006, the king was forced to accept all three demands. Nepal abolished the kingship in 2008 and became a federal democratic republic. In 2015, Nepal adopted a new constitution. The struggle of the Nepali people is a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world.-Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Notes

Bolivia’s Water War -Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Notes

  • The World Bank pressured the Bolivian government to sell its municipal water supply to a private enterprise called MNC.
  • MNC's ownership of the water supply led to high water bills, which most people couldn't afford.
  • In 2000, a coalition of labor, human rights, and community leaders led widespread protests against the high water bills.
  • The government initially agreed to negotiate with the protestors, but the negotiations failed.
  • The people resumed their protests, despite government attempts to suppress them with police brutality and martial law.
  • Ultimately, the people prevailed, and the owners of MNC were forced to flee the country, with the water supply being returned to the government.

Democracy and Popular Struggles 

  • Both Nepal and Bolivia demonstrate the power of people in a democracy to change the course of their country.
  • In both cases, ordinary people joined wider struggles against the authorities in power, whether a democracy or a monarchy, to introduce, expand, and deepen democracy.
  • Mass mobilization is the only way to resolve these struggles, as existing judicial authorities may be involved or ineffective.
  • These conflicts arise from new political organizations and can be mobilized by them.

Mobilisation and Organisations- Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Notes

  • The initial struggle in Nepal was taken up by the SPA, who introduced an indefinite strike that called for mass upsurge. Other political groups later joined the struggle, and common people also joined forces with the organizations, giving the movement its strength.
  • In Bolivia, political and apolitical organizations led the struggle, with the most important apolitical organization being FEDECOR, a group of farmers who depended on water for irrigation and cultivation.
  • In both examples, multiple kinds of organizations significantly influenced governance in a democracy.
  • These organizations can play their part in two ways: directly, by participating in competitive politics and creating parties to become members of parliament, or indirectly, by forming groups and undertaking activities or protests to make the government listen to their demands.
  • The groups that influence the government through activities without political competition are called pressure groups.
  • There are two types of pressure groups: sectional interests groups and public interest groups, both formed by ordinary people who want to influence the government.

Sectional interest groups - Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Notes

Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Notes-Sectional interest groups are formed by people who share common interests and aims, usually related to a particular profession, occupation, or economic activity. These groups aim to protect and promote the specific interests of their members, such as higher wages, better working conditions, or specific policies that benefit their industry. They may use various methods to achieve their goals, including lobbying, protests, and strikes. While sectional interest groups may benefit their members, they may also create conflicts with other groups, and their influence may not always align with the broader public interest. Therefore, it is important for a democratic government to strike a balance between the demands of sectional interest groups and the interests of the wider public.

Public interest groups

Public interest groups are formed by individuals who share a common interest in promoting policies that benefit society as a whole, rather than just a specific group. These groups work to advocate for issues such as environmental protection, civil rights, public health, and education. They aim to influence public policy and decision-making through various methods, including lobbying, advocacy campaigns, and public education. Public interest groups play an important role in a democratic society by raising awareness of important issues and representing the interests of marginalized or underrepresented groups. They help to ensure that the government is accountable to the people and that policies are made in the interest of the wider public.

Movement groups

Movement groups are groups formed by ordinary citizens who come together to advocate for social or political change. These groups often arise in response to perceived injustices or grievances and aim to create widespread social or political movements to bring about change. Here are some key points about movement groups:

  • They are formed by individuals who are not necessarily members of a specific interest group or political party.

  • Their goals are often focused on broader social or political issues, such as civil rights, environmental protection, or anti-corruption.

  • They use a variety of tactics to raise awareness and build support, including protests, rallies, civil disobedience, and media campaigns.

  • Movement groups can have a significant impact on society and politics, as seen in examples such as the civil rights movement in the United States or the anti-apartheid movement in South Africa.

  • Movement groups can also face significant challenges, including repression from authorities, lack of resources, and internal disagreements about tactics and goals.

  • They can sometimes evolve into more formal interest groups or political parties, or they may dissolve after achieving their goals.

Overall, movement groups are an important part of democratic societies, as they provide a mechanism for citizens to voice their concerns and push for social and political change.


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Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Notes

Also read,

Class 10 NCERT Science notes -All Chapters

Power Sharing Notes Class 10th

Federalism Class 10 Notes

Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes


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