Amongst the following compounds, identify which are insoluble, partially soluble and highly soluble in water?
(i) phenol (ii) toluene (iii) formic acid
(iv) ethylene glycol (v) chloroform (vi) pentanol.
(i) Phenol (C6H5OH) has the polar group −OH and non-polar group −C6H5. Thus, phenol is partially soluble in water.
(ii) Toluene (C6H5−CH3) has no polar groups. Thus, toluene is insoluble in water.
(iii) Formic acid (HCOOH) has the polar group −OH and can form H-bond with water. Thus, formic acid is highly soluble in water.
(iv) Ethylene glycol has polar −OH group and can form H−bond. Thus, it is highly soluble in water.
(v) Chloroform is insoluble in water.
(vi) Pentanol (C5H11OH) has polar −OH group, but it also contains a very bulky non-polar −C5H11 group. Thus, pentanol is partially soluble in water.