Describe briefly the followings:


Describe briefly the followings:

(a) Origin of replication

(b) Bioreactors

(c) Downstream processing


(a) Origin of replication −Origin of replication is defined as the DNA sequence in a genome from where replication initiates. The initiation of replication can be either uni-directional or bi-directional. A protein complex recognizes the ‘on’ site, unwinds the two strands, and initiates the copying of the DNA.

(b) Bioreactors − Bioreactors are large vessels used for the large-scale production of biotechnology products from raw materials. They provide optimal conditions to obtain the desired product by providing the optimum temperature, pH, vitamin, oxygen, etc. Bioreactors have an oxygen delivery system, a foam control system, a PH, a temperature control system, and a sampling port to obtain a small volume of culture for sampling.

(c) Downstream processing − Downstream processing is a method of separation and purification of foreign gene products after the completion of the biosynthetic stage. The product is subjected to various processes in order to separate and purify the product. After downstream processing, the product is formulated and is passed through various clinical trials for quality control and other tests.

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