When an atom gains an electron, its size increases. When an electron is added, the number of electrons goes up by one. This results in an increase in repulsion among the electrons. However, the number of protons remains the same. As a result, the effective nuclear charge of the atom decreases and the radius of the atom increases.
When an atom loses an electron, the number of electrons decreases by one while the nuclear charge remains the same. Therefore, the interelectronic repulsions in the atom decrease. As a result, the effective nuclear charge increases. Hence, the radius of the atom decreases.