Elements of group 14


Elements of group 14

(a) exhibit oxidation state of $+4$ only

(b) exhibit oxidation state of $+2$ and $+4$

(c) form $\mathrm{M}^{2-}$ and $\mathrm{M}^{4+}$ ion

(d) form $\mathrm{M}^{2+}$ and $\mathrm{M}^{4+}$ ions


(b) The elements of group 14 have 4 valence electrons. Therefore, the oxidation state of the group is $+4$. However, as a result of the inert pair effect, the lower oxidation state becomes more and more stable and the higher oxidation state becomes less stable. Therefore, this group exhibits $+4$ and $+2$ oxidation states.

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