Explain the formation of a chemical bond.
A chemical bond is defined as an attractive force that holds the constituents (atoms, ions etc.) together in a chemical species.
Various theories have been suggested for the formation of chemical bonds such as the electronic theory, valence shell electron pair repulsion theory, valence bond theory, and molecular orbital theory.
A chemical bond formation is attributed to the tendency of a system to attain stability. It was observed that the inertness of noble gases was because of their fully filled outermost orbitals. Hence, it was postulated that the elements having incomplete outermost shells are unstable (reactive). Atoms, therefore, combine with each other and complete their respective octets or duplets to attain the stable configuration of the nearest noble gases. This combination can occur either by sharing of electrons or by transferring one or more electrons from one atom to another. The chemical bond formed as a result of sharing of electrons between atoms is called a covalent bond. An ionic bond is formed as a result of the transference of electrons from one atom to another.