Form the pair of linear equations in the following problems, and find their solution graphically:

Question:

Form the pair of linear equations in the following problems, and find their solution graphically:

(i) 10 students of class X took part in Mathematics quiz. If the number of girls is 4 more than the number of boys, find the number of boys and girls who took part in the quiz.

(ii) 5 pencils and 7 pens together  cost Rs 50, whereas 7 pencils and 5 pens together cost Rs 46. Find the cost of one pencil and a pen.

(iii) Champa went to a 'sale' to purchase some pants and skirts. When her friends asked her how many of each she had bought, she answered, "The number of skirts is two less than twice the number of pants purchased. Also the number of skirts is four less than four times the number of pants purchased." Help her friends to find how many pants and skirts Champa bought.

Solution:

(i) Let the number of girls be and the number of boys be y.

According to the question, the algebraic representation is

x + y = 10

x − y = 4

For x + y = 10,

x = 10 − y

Hence, the graphic representation is as follows.

From the figure, it can be observed that these lines intersect each other at point (7, 3).

Therefore, the number of girls and boys in the class are 7 and 3 respectively.

(ii) Let the cost of 1 pencil be Rs and the cost of 1 pen be Rs y.

According to the question, the algebraic representation is

5x + 7y = 50

7x + 5y = 46

For 5x + 7y = 50,

$x=\frac{50-7 y}{5}$

Hence, the graphic representation is as follows.

From the figure, it can be observed that these lines intersect each other at point (3, 5).

Therefore, the cost of a pencil and a pen are Rs 3 and Rs 5 respectively.

(iii) Let us denote the number of pants by and the number of skirts by y. Then the equations formed are :

= 2x − 2 … (i)

= 4x − 4 … (ii)

The graphs of the equations (i) and (ii) can be drawn by finding two solutions for each of the equations. They are given in the following table.

Hence, the graphic representation is as follows.

The two lines intersect at the point (1, 0). So, = 1, = 0 is the required solution of the pair of linear equations, i.e., the number of pants she purchased is 1 and she did not buy any skirt.