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Fractional distillation is suitable for separation of miscible liquids with a boiling point difference of about 25 K or less. What part of fractional distillation apparatus makes it efficient and possesses an advantage over a simple distillation process. Explain using a diagram.
It is the fractionating column which fits into the distillation flask. It is packed with a number of glass beads.
A the vapours of both the volatile liquids rise upwards in the distillation flask, the beads obstruct their
movement i.e. it slows down. The vapours of higher boiling liquid condense to the liquid state and in doing
so they release certain energy' known as latent heat of condensation. The energy which is released is taken
up by the molecules of lower boiling liquid. As a result, they vapourise more quickly and pass through the
water condenser and condense as a liquid in the receiver. The higher boiling liquid remains in the distillation
flask only. For further details about the fractional distillation