Give the characteristics and effects of the monsoon rainfall in India.


Give the characteristics and effects of the monsoon rainfall in India.


Characteristics of monsoon rainfall in India:

(i) The duration of the monsoon is between 100 to 120 days from early June to mid-September.

(ii) Around the time of its arrival, the normal rainfall increases suddenly and continues for several days. This is known as the ‘burst’ of the monsoon.

(iii) The monsoon has characteristic wet and dry spells or ‘breaks’ in rainfall. The monsoon rains take place only for a few days at a time. They are interspersed with rainless intervals.

(iv) The moisture is carried by pulsating south westerlies that are affected by different atmospheric conditions, thereby giving monsoon rains an uncertain character. The annual rainfall is highly variable from year to year

(v) The rainfall is unevenly distributed across the Indian landscape. Parts of the western coast and north-eastern India receive the maximum rainfall. Regions such as parts of Rajasthan, Gujarat, Leh and the leeward side of the Western Ghats receive very little rainfall.

Effects of monsoon rainfall in India:

(a) Indian agriculture is largely dependent upon the water from the monsoon rains. Late, low or excessive rains have a negative impact upon crops.

(b) Due to the uneven distribution of rainfall across the country, there are some regions that are drought prone and some that are flood afflicted.

(c) The monsoon provides India with a distinct climatic pattern. Hence, in spite of the presence of great regional variations, it has a unifying influence upon the country and its people.

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