How do you distinguish between hypogeal germination

Question:

How do you distinguish between hypogeal germination and epigeal germination? What is the role of the cotyledon (s) and the endosperm in the germination of seeds?

Solution:

Role of Cotyledons and Endosperm in the germination of seeds –

They contain reserved food materials. When seed imbibes water, enzymes get activated, hydrolyze reserve food material and make it available for the germinating seed.

Hypogeal germination is that epicotyl grows first and the only plumule is pushed out of the soil. The cotyledons remain non-green and non-photosynthetic.

In Epigeal germination, hypocotyl grows first. It pushes cotyledons and other parts of the seed out of the soil. Cotyledons become green and photosynthetic.

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