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If there were only one type

Question:

If there were only one type of charge in the universe, then

(a) $\oint_{z}$ E.ds $\neq 0$ on any surface

(b) $\oint_{z} E \cdot d s=0$ if the charge is outside the surface

(c) $\oint_{s} E . \mathrm{d} S$ could not be defined

(d) $\oint_{s} \mathrm{E} \cdot \mathrm{dS}=\frac{q}{\varepsilon_{0}}$ if charges of magnitude $q$ were inside the surface

Solution:

According to the Gauss' law

$\int_{S} E \cdot d s=\frac{q}{\varepsilon_{o}}$

Where is the charge enclosed by the surface. If the charge is outside the surface, then charge

If the charge is outside the surface, then charge enclosed by the surface is = 0, therefore,

$\int_{s} E \cdot d s=0$

Electric flux doesn't depend on the nature or type of charge.

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