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The +1 oxidation state in group 13 and +2

Question:

The +1 oxidation state in group 13 and +2 oxidation state in group 14 becomes more and more stable with increasing atomic number. Explain.

Solution:

Due to the poor shielding of s orbital electrons by d and f orbitals, the tendency of s orbital to form the bond and will decreases down the group from group 13 and 14.

This property is called the inner pair effect. Thus, the +1 oxidation state in group 13 and +2 oxidation state in group 14 becomes more and more stable with increasing

atomic number.

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