# The first ionization enthalpy values (in kJmol–1) of group 13 elements are :

Question:

The first ionization enthalpy values (in $\mathrm{kJmol}^{-1}$ ) of group 13 elements are

How would you explain this deviation from the general trend?

Solution:

On moving down a group, ionization enthalpy generally decreases due to an increase in the atomic size and shielding. Thus, on moving down group 13, ionization enthalpy decreases from B to Al. But, Ga has higher ionization enthalpy than Al. Al follows immediately after s–block elements, whereas Ga follows after d–block elements. The shielding provided by d-electrons is not very effective. These electrons do not shield the valence electrons very effectively. As a result, the valence electrons of Ga experience a greater effective nuclear charge than those of Al. Further, moving from Ga to In, the ionization enthalpy decreases due to an increase in the atomic size and shielding. But, on moving from In to Tl, the ionization enthalpy again increases. In the periodic table, Tl follows after 4f and 5d electrons. The shielding provided by the electrons in both these orbitals is not very effective. Therefore, the valence electron is held quite strongly by the nucleus. Hence, the ionization energy of Tl is on the higher side.