## The following table gives the GDP in Rupees (Crores) by the three sectors:

[question] Question. The following table gives the GDP in Rupees (Crores) by the three sectors: (i) Calculate the share of the three sectors in GDP for 1950 and 2000. (ii) Show the data as a bar diagram similar to Graph 2 in the chapter. (iii) What conclusions can we draw from the bar graph? [/question] [solution] Solution: (i) In 1950, primary sector = 57.97%, secondary sector = 13.77%, tertiary sector = 28.26% In 2000, primary sector = 27.33%, secondary sector = 24.37%, tertiary sector = 48.30...

## The workers in the unorganised sector need protection on the following issues: wages, safety and health.

[question] Question. The workers in the unorganised sector need protection on the following issues: wages, safety and health. Explain with examples. [/question] [solution] Solution: The workers in the unorganised sector need protection on the following issues: wages, safety and health. In the construction sector, labourers are employed on a daily basis. Hence, they have no job security. Here, wages too differ from time to time. Consequently, the government has set up a minimum wages act to prote...

## Explain how public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation.

[question] Question. Explain how public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation. [/question] [solution] Solution: The public sector contributes to the economic development of a nation by not mere financial profits. The public sector plays a vital role in contributing to the Human Development Index via its functioning in health and education services. Also, by buying food grains at a “fair price” from farmers, providing electricity, water, postal services at low rates, the gove...

## Give a few examples of public sector activities and explain why the government has taken them up.

[question] Question. Give a few examples of public sector activities and explain why the government has taken them up. [/question] [solution] Solution: A few examples of public sector activities are provision of water, electricity and some modes of transport. The government has taken these up because water and power are needed by everyone. If the work of providing electricity and water is left to private enterprises, the latter might exploit this opportunity and sell these at rates which the mas...

## Discuss and fill the following table giving one example each from your area.

[question] Question. Discuss and fill the following table giving one example each from your area. [/question] [solution] Solution: [/solution]...

## Using examples from your area compare and contrast the activities and functions of private and public sectors.

[question] Question. Using examples from your area compare and contrast the activities and functions of private and public sectors. [/question] [solution] Solution: Attempt this question on your own. [/solution]...

## Explain the objective of implementing the NREGA 2005.

[question] Question. Explain the objective of implementing the NREGA 2005. [/question] [solution] Solution: The objective of implementing the NREGA 2005 was to provide 100 days of guaranteed employment to those people in rural India who can work, and are in need of work. This Right to Work has been implemented in 200 districts. If the government is unable to provide this employment, then it has to give unemployment allowances to the people. [/solution]...

## Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organised and unorganised sectors.

[question] Question. Compare the employment conditions prevailing in the organised and unorganised sectors. [/question] [solution] Solution: The employment conditions prevailing in the organised and unorganised sectors are vastly different. The organised sector has companies registered with the government and hence, it offers job security, paid holidays, pensions, health and other benefits, fixed working hours and extra pay for overtime work. On the other hand, the unorganised sector is a host o...

## How are the activities in the economy classified on the basis of employment conditions?

[question] Question. How are the activities in the economy classified on the basis of employment conditions? [/question] [solution] Solution: On the basis of employment conditions, activities in the economy are classified as organised and unorganised. The organised sector offers job security and employment benefits, while the unorganised sector is marked by low wages and lack of job security. In rural areas, the unorganised sector comprises landless agricultural labourers, sharecroppers and arti...

## Workers are exploited in the unorganised sector. Do you agree with this view?

[question] Question. Workers are exploited in the unorganised sector. Do you agree with this view? Give reasons in support of your answer. [/question] [solution] Solution: Workers are exploited in the unorganised sector. I agree with this view. The unorganised sector does not offer any job security. Neither does it allow for scope of trade or workers’ unions. Workers can be easily exploited in this scenario. They cannot afford to rebel against an employer’s tyranny as the latter can fire them at...

## Service sector in India employs two different kinds of people.

[question] Question. Service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. Who are these? [/question] [solution] Solution: Service sector in India employs two different kinds of people. These are primary and ancillary workers. Primary workers include those who directly provide services while ancillary workers are composed of those who give services to the service providers. For example, consultants make available their services to consultancy firms etc. [/solution]...

## “Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of Indian economy.

[question] Question. “Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of Indian economy.” Do you agree? Give reasons in support of your answer. [/question] [solution] Solution: “Tertiary sector is not playing any significant role in the development of the Indian economy”. This statement is not true. The tertiary sector has contributed vastly to the Indian economy, especially in the last two decades. In the last decade, the field of information technology has grown, and con...

## Distinguish between open unemployment and disguised unemployment.

[question] Question. Distinguish between open unemployment and disguised unemployment. [solution] Solution: Open unemployment is when a person has no job in hand and does not earn anything at all. Disguised unemployment, on the other hand, is mostly found in the unorganised sector where either work is not consistently available or too many people are employed for some work that does not require so many hands. This is the essential difference between open unemployment and disguised unemployment. ...

## What do you understand by disguised unemployment? Explain with an example each from the urban and rural areas.

[question] Question. What do you understand by disguised unemployment? Explain with an example each from the urban and rural areas. [/question] [solution] Solution: Disguised unemployment is a form of underemployment where one has a job but the work is divided. It is not apparent as compared to someone without a job who is clearly unemployed. In rural areas, this can be seen in the farming community where all members of a family might be working on a farm even though so many hands are not requir...

## How is the tertiary sector different from other sectors?

[question] Question. How is the tertiary sector different from other sectors? Illustrate with a few examples. [/question] [solution] Solution: The tertiary sector is different from the other sectors because it does not manufacture or produce anything. For this reason, it is also known as the service sector. It aids the primary and secondary sectors in development. The tertiary sector involves services like transport, storage of goods, communications, banking and administrative work. [/solution]...

## Make a long list of all kinds of work that you find adults around you doing for a living. In what way can you classify them?

[question] Question. Make a long list of all kinds of work that you find adults around you doing for a living. In what way can you classify them? Explain your choice. [question] [solution] Solution: Attempt this question on your own. [/solution]...

## For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter why should one focus on employment and GDP?

[question] Question. For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter why should one focus on employment and GDP? Could there be other issues which should be examined? Discuss. [/question] [solution] Solution: For each of the sectors that we came across in this chapter, one should focus on employment and GDP because these determine the size of a country’s economy. A focus on employment and GDP helps determine two important things—per capita income and productivity. Hence, in each of t...

## Do you think the classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary is useful? Explain how.

[question] Question. Do you think the classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary is useful? Explain how. [/question] [solution] Solution: The classification of economic activities into primary, secondary and tertiary is useful on account of the information it provides on how and where the people of a country are employed. Also, this helps in ascertaining as to which sector of economic activity contributes more or less to the country’s GDP and per capita income. If...

## A research scholar looked at the working people in the city of Surat and found the following.

[question] Question. A research scholar looked at the working people in the city of Surat and found the following. Complete the table. What is the percentage of workers in the unorganised sector in this city? [/question] [solution] Solution: The percentage of workers in the unorganised sector in this city is 70%. [/solution]...

## Find the odd one out and say why.

[question] Question. Find the odd one out and say why. (i) Tourist guide, dhobi, tailor, potter (ii) Teacher, doctor, vegetable vendor, lawyer (iii) Postman, cobbler, soldier, police constable (iv) MTNL, Indian Railways, Air India, SAHARA Airlines, All India Radio [/question] [solution] Solution: (i) Tourist guide He is appointed by the government, while dhobi, tailor and potter belong to the private sector. (ii) Vegetable vendor His is the only profession that does not require a formal educatio...

## Match the following:

[question] Question. Match the following: [/question] [solution] Solution: [/solution]...

## Choose the most appropriate answer.

[question] Question. Choose the most appropriate answer. (a) The sectors are classified into public and private sector on the basis of: (i) employment conditions (ii) the nature of economic activity (iii) ownership of enterprises (iv) number of workers employed in the enterprise (b) Production of a commodity, mostly through the natural process, is an activity in ______________ sector. (i) primary (ii) secondary (iii) tertiary (iv) information technology (c) GDP is the total value of ____________...

## Fill in the blanks using the correct option given in the bracket:

[question] Question. Fill in the blanks using the correct option given in the bracket: (i) Employment in the service sector _________ increased to the same extent as production. (has / has not) (ii) Workers in the _________ sector do not produce goods. (tertiary / agricultural) (iii) Most of the workers in the _________ sector enjoy job security. (organised / unorganised) (iv) A _________ proportion of labourers in India are working in the unorganised sector. (large / small) (v) Cotton is a ____...