# Class 12th Syllabus 2022-2023

Class 12

Below you will find the Class 12th Syllabus 2022-2023 along with the Practical and assessment syllabus and marks which will help you to give your best in the exam.

• English Core-

(Prose)

• The Last Lesson
• Lost Spring
• Deep Water
• The Rattrap
• Indigo
• Poets and Pancakes
• The Interview
• Going Places

(Poetry)

• My Mother at Sixty-Six
• Keeping Quiet
• A Thing of Beauty
• Aunt Jennifer’s Tigers

• The Third Level
• The Tiger King
• Journey to the end of the Earth
• The Enemy
• On the Face of It
• Memories of Childhood
• The Cutting of My Long Hair
• We Too are Human Beings

• PHYSICS

Unit I: Electrostatics-
Chapter–1: Electric Charges and Fields:

Electric charges, Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law force between two-point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.
Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Chapter–2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance:
Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two-point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, the combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor (no derivation, formulae only).

Unit II: Current Electricity-
Chapter–3: Current Electricity
:
Electric current, the flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm's law, V-I characteristics (linear and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, temperature dependence of resistance, Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff's rules, Wheatstone bridge.

Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism-
Chapter–4: Moving Charges and Magnetism:
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment. Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight solenoid (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, moving coil galvanometers current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Chapter–5: Magnetism and Matter:
Bar magnet, bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid (qualitative treatment only), magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis (qualitative treatment only), torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field (qualitative treatment only), magnetic field lines. Magnetic properties of materials- Para-, dia- and ferro-magnetic substances with examples, Magnetization of materials, effect of temperature on magnetic properties.

Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents-
Chapter–6: Electromagnetic Induction:
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday's laws, induced EMF and current; Lenz's Law, Self and mutual induction.

Chapter–7: Alternating Current:
Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LCR series circuit (phasors only), resonance, power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current. AC generator, Transformer.

Unit V: Electromagnetic waves-
Chapter–8: Electromagnetic Waves:

Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, and their transverse nature (qualitative idea only). Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit VI: Optics-
Chapter–9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments:

Ray Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and optical fiber, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, a combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism. Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Chapter–10: Wave Optics:
Wave optics:
Wave front and Huygen’s principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen’s principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width (No derivation final expression only), coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, and width of central maxima (qualitative treatment only).

Unit VII: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter-
Chapter–11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter:
Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light. Experimental study of photoelectric effect Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation.

Unit VIII: Atoms and Nuclei-
Chapter–12: Atoms:
Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model of hydrogen atom, Expression for the radius of nth possible orbit, velocity and energy of electron in his orbit, of hydrogen line spectra (qualitative treatment only).

Chapter–13: Nuclei:
Composition and size of nucleus, nuclear force Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

Unit IX: Electronic Devices-
Chapter–14: Semiconductor Electronics:
Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors- p and n-type, p-n junction Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, application of junction diode -diode as a rectifier.

PRACTICALS
3 Hours/30 Marks

 Two experiments one from each section 7+7 Marks Practical record [experiments and activities] 5 Marks One activity from any section 3 Marks Investigatory Project 3 Marks Viva on experiments, activities and project 5 Marks Total 30 Marks

• CHEMISTRY

Unit II: Solutions-
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, the solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, Raoult's law, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, the elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Van't Hoff factor.

Unit III: Electrochemistry-
Redox reactions, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, fuel cells, corrosion.

Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics-
Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first order reactions), the concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment), activation energy, Arrhenius equation.

Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements-
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first-row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.

Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
Actinoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.

Unit IX: Coordination Compounds-
Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereoisomerism, the importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological system).

Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes-
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C–X bond, physical and chemical properties, optical rotation mechanism of substitution reactions.
Haloarenes: Nature of C–X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only). Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.

Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers-
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, and uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids-
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of nucleophilic addition, the reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes, uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

Unit XIII: Amines-
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, and identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Unit XIV: Biomolecules-
Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); Importance of carbohydrates.
Proteins- Elementary idea of - amino acids, peptide bonds, polypeptides, proteins, the structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure.
Vitamins - Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids- DNA and RNA.

PRACTICALS
3 Hours/30 Marks

 Evaluation Scheme for Examination Marks Volumetric Analysis 08 Salt Analysis 08 Content-Based Experiment 06 Project Work 04 Class record and viva 04 Total 30

• MATHEMATICS

Unit-I: Relations and Functions

1. Relations and Functions-
Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One-to-one and onto functions.
2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions-
Definition, range, domain, principal value branch. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions.

Unit-II: Algebra

1. Matrices-
Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices. Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar. Simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. On commutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2). Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).
2. Determinants-
Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), minors, co-factors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.

Unit-III: Calculus

1. Continuity and Differentiability-
Continuity and differentiability, chain rule, derivative of inverse trigonometric functions, 𝑙𝑖𝑘𝑒 𝑥, 𝑥 and 𝑥, derivative of implicit functions. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions.
Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second-order derivatives.
2. Applications of Derivatives-
Applications of derivatives: rate of change of bodies, increasing/decreasing functions, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations).
3. Integrals-
Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on them.
Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.
4. Applications of the Integrals-
Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, circles/ parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only)
5. Differential Equations-
Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type:
+ py = q, where p and q are functions of x or constants.
+ px = q, where p and q are functions of y or constants.

Unit-IV: Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry-

1. Vectors-
Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors.
2. Three-dimensional Geometry-
Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Angle between two lines.

Unit-VI: Probability

1. Probability-
Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability, independent events, total probability, Bayes’ theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean of random variable

ASSESSMENT

 INTERNAL ASSESSMENT 20 Marks Periodic Tests (Best 2 out of 3 tests conducted) 10 Marks Mathematics Activities 10 Marks

Note: For activities NCERT Lab Manual may be referred.

• BIOLOGY

Unit-VI Reproduction

Chapter-2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Flower structure; development of male and female gametophytes; pollination - types, agencies and examples; out breeding devices; pollen-pistil interaction; double fertilization; post-fertilization events - development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit; special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony; Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.

Chapter-3: Human Reproduction
Male and female reproductive systems; microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary; gametogenesis -spermatogenesis and oogenesis; menstrual cycle; fertilization, embryo development up-to blastocyst formation, implantation; pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea); parturition (elementary idea); lactation (elementary idea).

Chapter-4: Reproductive Health
Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs); birth control - need and methods, contraception and medical termination of pregnancy (MTP); amniocentesis; infertility and assisted reproductive technologies - IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (elementary idea for general awareness).

Unit-VII Genetics and Evolution

Chapter-5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
Heredity and variation:
Mendelian inheritance; deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy; elementary idea of polygenic inheritance; chromosome theory of inheritance; chromosomes and genes; Sex determination - in humans, birds and honey bee; linkage and crossing over; sex-linked inheritance - haemophilia, colour blindness; Mendelian disorders in humans - thalassemia; chromosomal disorders in humans; Down's syndrome, Turner's and Klinefelter's syndromes.

Chapter-6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging; DNA replication; Central Dogma; transcription, genetic code, translation; gene expression and regulation - lac operon; Genome, Human and rice genome projects; DNA fingerprinting.

Chapter-7: Evolution
Origin of life; biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution (paleontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular shreds of evidence); Darwin's contribution, modern synthetic theory of evolution; mechanism of evolution - variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection; Gene flow and genetic drift; Hardy - Weinberg's principle; adaptive radiation; human evolution.

Unit-VIII Biology and Human Welfare

Chapter-8: Human Health and Diseases
Pathogens; parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm) and their control; Basic concepts of immunology - vaccines; cancer, HIV and AIDS; Adolescence - drug and alcohol abuse.

Chapter-10: Microbes in Human Welfare
Microbes in food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as bio-control agents and bio-fertilizers. Antibiotics; production and judicious use.

Unit-IX Biotechnology and its Applications

Chapter-11: Biotechnology - Principles and Processes
Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology).

Chapter-12: Biotechnology and its Applications
Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, stem cell technology, gene therapy; genetically modified organisms - Bt crops; transgenic animals; biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

Unit-X Ecology and Environment

Chapter-13: Organisms and Populations
Population interactions - mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism; population attributes - growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution. (Topics excluded: Organism and its Environment, Major Abiotic Factors, Responses to Abiotic Factors, Adaptations)

Chapter-14: Ecosystem
Ecosystems: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; energy flow; pyramids of number, biomass, energy (Topics excluded: Ecological Succession and Nutrient Cycles)

Chapter-15: Biodiversity and its Conservation
Biodiversity-Concept, patterns, importance; loss of biodiversity; biodiversity conservation; hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.

PRACTICALS
03 Hours/30Marks

 Evaluation Scheme Marks One Major Experiment 5 5 One Minor Experiment 2 & 3 4 Slide Preparation 1& 4 5 Spotting 7 Practical Record + Viva Voce (Credit to the student's work over the academic session may be given) 4 Investigatory Project and its Project Record + Viva Voce (Credit to the students’ work over the academic session may be given) 5 Total 30 Marks

For your best preparations, you can refer Previous Year question Papers, that will help you to know the paper pattern and enhance your speed