Magnetism and Matter Class 12 Notes will help you in your Exam Preparation and will also help in scoring good! The property of any object by virtue of which it can attract a piece of iron or steel is called **Magnetism****. **Here we will study about the Coulomb’s Law in Magnetism, Magnetic Flux Density, and Pole Strength.

**Coulomb’s Law in Magnetism**

If two magnetic poles of strengths $${{m_1}}$$ and $${{m_2}}$$ are kept at a distance r apart then force of attraction or repulsion between the two poles is directly proportional to the product of their pole strengths and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them

$$F \propto {{{m_1}{m_2}} \over {{r^2}}}\quad or\,\,F = {{{\mu _0}} \over {4\pi }}{{{m_1}{m_2}} \over {{r^2}}}$$

Where $\frac{\mu_{0}}{4 \pi}=10^{-7} Wb A ^{-1} m ^{-1}=10^{-7}$ henry/m where $\mu_{0}$ is permeability of free space.

**Magnetic Flux Density**

The force experienced by a unit north pole when placed in a magnetic field is called magnetic flux density or field intensity at that point

$\overrightarrow{ B }=\frac{\overrightarrow{ F }}{ m }=\frac{\mu_{0}}{4 \pi} \frac{ m }{ r ^{2}} \hat{ r }$

This is the magnetic field produced by a pole of strength m at distance r.

**Pole Strength **

In relation $F=\frac{\mu_{0}}{4 \pi} \frac{m_{1} m_{2}}{r^{2}}$

If $m _{1}= m _{2}= m , r =1 m$ and $F =10^{-7} N$

Then $10^{-7}=10^{-7} \times \frac{ m \times m }{1^{2}}$ or $m^{2}=1$ or $m=\pm 1$ ampere metre (A-m)

The strength of a magnetic pole is said to be one ampere meter if it repels an equal and similar pole with a force of $10^{-7}$ N when placed in vacuum (or air) at a distance of one meter from it.

The pole strength of north pole is defined as the force experienced by the pole when kept in unit magnetic field.

$m =\frac{\overrightarrow{ F }}{\overrightarrow{ B }}$

- Pole strength is a scalar quantity with dimension $M^{0} L^{1} T^{0} A^{1}$

(2) The unit is newton/Tesla or ampere meter.

(3) The pole strength depends on nature of material of magnet, state of magnetisation (with an upper limit called saturation) and area of cross-section.

(4) The north pole experiences a force in the direction of magnetic field while south pole experiences force opposite to field.

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