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Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes

Class 10
Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes

Welcome to the article on "Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes". This article discusses the importance of democracy and diversity in society, especially in the context of the Class 10 curriculum. It delves into the idea that democracy is not just a form of government, but a way of life that promotes the participation of all citizens in decision-making processes. It also explores how diversity enriches our social fabric and how it can sometimes lead to conflicts. The article aims to provide an in-depth understanding of the concepts of democracy and diversity and how they can coexist to create a more inclusive and harmonious society.

Homogeneous Society - Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes

A society that has similar kinds of people, especially where there are no significant ethnic differences, for example, Germany and Sweden.


Anybody who shifts from one region or country to another region within a country or to another country, usually for work or other opportunities, is called migrant.

Civil Rights Movement- Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes

Martin Luther King Jr. led this movement from 1954-1968 to abolish legal racial discrimination against African-Americans. The movement consisted of a series of events and reform movements that aimed to end discriminatory laws and practices. Non-violent methods of civil disobedience were practiced by the movement to challenge racial discrimination.

Black Power Movement

The Black Power Movement emerged in 1966 and continued until 1975 as a more militant and anti-racist movement. Advocating for even the use of violence if necessary, the movement aimed to put an end to racism in the US

Incident of two US athletes who protested at Mexico Olympics in 1968

US athletes Tommie Smith and John Carlos made a political statement during the 1968 Olympic Games. They received their medals wearing only black socks, representing Black poverty, and raised clenched fists covered in black gloves, symbolizing Black Power. The gesture was in response to social divisions and inequalities, aimed at drawing international attention to racial discrimination in the United States. Australian athlete Peter Norman showed his support for the Americans by wearing a human rights badge on his shirt during the ceremony. - Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes

However, the International Olympic Association considered their actions as a violation of the Olympic spirit and took back their medals.

Origins of Social differences -  Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes

Accident of birth: Our community is not a choice but rather an accident of birth, which results in social differences that we experience in our daily lives.

Based on choices: However, some of the differences we experience are based on our choices. For instance, some people choose to be atheists and do not believe in any religion. Others opt to follow a religion different from the one they were born into. Additionally, most of us choose to study subjects that interest us and pursue occupations where we can excel. These choices lead to the formation of social groups based on our preferences.

Overlapping - Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes

Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes-The possibility of deep social divisions and tensions arises due to overlapping social differences, wherein one type of social difference becomes more significant than the other. This creates a sense of belonging to a different community among people.

Northern Ireland provides an example of overlapping social differences as class and religion are intertwined. Being Catholic in Northern Ireland often implies a history of discrimination and a higher likelihood of being poor. This has resulted in conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in the region.


Accommodating cross-cutting social differences is comparatively easier. In such cases, groups that share a common interest on one issue may have differences on other issues.

The Netherlands provides an example of cross-cutting social differences, as class and religion intersect with each other. Catholics and Protestants in the country have an equal chance of being rich or poor. As a result, there are no conflicts between these groups in the Netherlands.

Factors determining the outcome of politics of social divisions are:-

  • If individuals view their identities exclusively, it becomes challenging to accommodate them. In Northern Ireland, the Catholic and Protestant communities struggled to reconcile their differences as they solely identified with their respective religions. It is easier to stay together when identities complement national identity.
  • Accommodating demands that fall within the constitutional framework and do not harm other communities is easier. In Sri Lanka, the demand for 'only Sinhala' disregarded the interests and identities of the Tamil community.
  • The reaction of governments to the demands of different groups plays a crucial role in mitigating social divisions. When rulers are willing to share power and accommodate reasonable demands from minority communities, as in Belgium, social divisions become less threatening to the country. However, if demands are suppressed under the pretext of national unity, as in Sri Lanka, the outcome is the opposite. Attempting to force integration leads to disintegration.


In conclusion, the concepts of democracy and diversity are vital for the development of an inclusive and equitable society. Democracy promotes equal participation and representation of all citizens, while diversity enriches our social fabric by exposing us to different cultures, beliefs, and perspectives. However, the coexistence of democracy and diversity can sometimes lead to conflicts, and it is important to address these conflicts through dialogue and mutual respect. By understanding the principles of democracy and diversity, we can work towards creating a society that values inclusivity and equity for all its citizens. As students in Class 10, it is essential to grasp the significance of these concepts and to apply them in our lives to contribute towards a better world.

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Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes


Also read,

Class 10 NCERT Science notes -All Chapters

The Rise of Nationalism In Europe Class 10 Notes

Making Of Global World Class 10 Notes

The Age of Industrialisation Class 10 Notes

Power Sharing Notes Class 10th

Federalism Class 10 Notes


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