Federalism Class 10 NotesClass 10
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Welcome to this article on Federalism Class 10 Notes. Federalism is a key feature of India's political system, enshrined in the Constitution. The division of power between the central government and state governments, as well as the creation of local government bodies, plays an important role in maintaining the balance of power and ensuring that all levels of government are accountable to the people. In this article, we will explore the key concepts of federalism in India, including the distribution of powers, the role of local government, and the impact of federalism on India's democracy. So, let's dive in and understand the intricacies of federalism in India.
In federalism, a central authority divides power among various constituent units of the country, creating a vertical division of power among different levels of governments. Modern democracies consider federalism as one of the major forms of power-sharing.
Key features of federalism are:
- Different levels of government govern the same citizens, with their own jurisdiction in specific matters of legislation, taxation and administration.
- The existence and authority of each level of government is constitutionally governed.
- Unilateral changes to the fundamental provisions of the Constitution are not allowed. Consent from both levels of government is required for such changes.
- The Constitution is interpreted by the courts, with the highest court acting as the umpire in case of disputes between different levels of governments.
- Sources of revenue for each level of government are specified to ensure its financial autonomy.
- The federal system aims to safeguard and promote the unity of the country while accommodating regional diversity.
Union Territories - Federalism Class 10 Notes
- Union Territories are units of the Indian Union that cannot become an independent state and cannot be merged with any existing states.
- These territories are also known as "Centrally Administered Territories".
- Examples of Union Territories in India include Chandigarh and Lakshadweep.
- At least two political parties come together to form a government in a coalition.
- Partners in a coalition usually form a political alliance and adopt a common programme.
- Examples of coalitions in India include the National Democratic Alliance (NDA), the United Progressive Alliance (UPA), and the Left Front.
India a federal country - Federalism Class 10 Notes
- The Constitution of India declares it as a Union of States, although it is based on the principles of federation and does not use the word "Federation".
- The original Constitution provided for a two-tier system of government consisting of the Union Government or Central Government representing the Union of India and the State Governments.
- The third tier of federation was added in the form of Panchayats and Municipalities, with each tier enjoying separate jurisdiction as in any federation.
- The Constitution distributes legislative powers between the Union Government and State Governments through three lists: Union List (97 Subjects), State List (66 Subjects), and Concurrent List (47 Subjects).
- India is an example of a "holding together" federation where the Central Government holds more power than the states. Some states, such as Jammu & Kashmir, enjoy a special status and have their own Constitution.
‘Coming together’ federations
Independent states come together on their own to form a bigger unit through this agreement. By pooling sovereignty and retaining identity, they aim to increase their security. Examples of such unions include the USA, Switzerland, and Australia
‘Holding together’ federations - Federalism Class 10 Notes
- In this agreement, a large country decides to divide its power between the national government and constituent states.
- The national government tends to hold more power compared to the states in such federations.
- Different constituent units of the federation often have unequal powers, with some units granted special powers. - Federalism Class 10 Notes
- Examples of such federations include India, Spain, and Belgium.
Sharing of power between the Union Government and State Governments
- The Constitution's structure is based on the sharing of power between the Union Government and the State Governments.
- The Parliament cannot unilaterally change this arrangement; any change requires at least two-thirds majority in both Houses of Parliament and ratification by the legislatures of at least half of the total states.
- In case of any dispute about the division of powers, the High Courts and the Supreme Court have the authority to make a decision.
Reasons for success of federalism in India - Federalism Class 10 Notes
- The Constitution provides a clear distribution of powers between the Union and State Governments through the Union List, State List, and Concurrent List.
- Democratic politics in India has a specific nature that influences the functioning of the government.
- The creation of linguistic states led to the redefining of the boundaries of several old states to ensure that people who spoke the same language resided in the same state.
- Centre-State relations have been restricted in certain areas to ensure that the division of power remains consistent with the Constitution.
Language policy of India
- The Constitution refrained from declaring any particular language as the national language of India.
- The creation of linguistic states facilitated easier administration and strengthened the unity of the country.
- The promotion of Hindi was approached with caution by Indian leaders, while it was recognized as the official language. - Federalism Class 10 Notes
- Apart from Hindi, the Constitution recognizes 21 other languages as scheduled languages.
Major steps towards decentralization taken in 1992 are:
- Regular elections for Local Government bodies are now constitutionally mandatory.
- Elected bodies reserve seats for scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, and other backward classes (OBCs).
- At least one-third of all positions in the local government bodies are reserved for women.
- The State Election Commission was created to conduct Panchayat and Municipal elections.
- State Governments are required to share some powers and revenue with Local Government bodies.
Structure of the new Panchayati Raj institutions - Federalism Class 10 Notes
- Panchayati Raj is the name given to the rural local government system.
- A Gram Panchayat is present for each village or group of villages. It has a directly elected decision-making body consisting of a Panch, President, or Sarpanch.
- The Gram Panchayat works under the supervision of the Gram Sabha, which includes all the voters of the village as its members.
- At the district level, a group of Gram Panchayats forms a Panchayat Samiti, Block or Mandal. The Zilla Parishad, consisting of elected members, is formed by combining all Panchayat Samitis or Mandals.
- Members of the Lok Sabha, Local MLAs and officers are also part of the Zilla Parishad.
- The Chairperson of the Zilla Parishad is its political head.
Urban areas local bodies - Federalism Class 10 Notes
Federalism Class 10 Notes- Municipalities are set up in towns. Big cities are constituted into Municipal Corporations. Both are controlled by elected bodies consisting of people’s representatives. Municipal chairperson is the political head of the Municipality. The head of Municipal Corporation is an officer called the Mayor.
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