Gender Religion and Caste Class 10 NotesClass 10
Welcome to the article on "Gender, Religion, and Caste Class 10 Notes". In India, gender, religion, and caste are interwoven in complex ways and have a significant impact on the lives of individuals. Gender discrimination, religious conflicts, and caste-based discrimination are some of the critical issues that have plagued the Indian society for centuries. It is essential to understand the intersectionality of these issues to effectively address them and bring about positive social change. This article aims to provide an in-depth understanding of the role of gender, religion, and caste in shaping Indian society and the efforts made to overcome discrimination based on these factors
Gender Religion and Caste Class 10 Notes- A person who believes in equal rights and opportunities for both women and men is called a feminist. Feminist movements are radical women's movements aimed at achieving equality for women in personal, family, and public life. These movements have organized and agitated to create channels for enhancing the political and legal status of women, as well as improving their educational and career opportunities.
Patriarchal society- Gender Religion and Caste Class 10 Notes
In a patriarchal society, men essentially dominate. They trace the line of descent through the father and are valued more in terms of their work and social position, giving them more power than women.-Gender Religion and Caste Class 10 Notes
Using religion in politics to establish domination of one religious group over the others is called communal politics. It occurs when the demands of one religious group are formed in opposition to another and when state power is used to support the dominant religious group.
Discrimination against women - Gender Religion and Caste Class 10 Notes
- Parents in many families prefer to spend their resources on their sons' education, even though girls often perform better in studies. As a result, a smaller proportion of girls go on to pursue higher education.
- Women work more than men on average, but their work is often not valued or paid for.
- The Equal Wages Act exists to ensure equal pay for equal work, but women are often paid less than men in various fields such as sports, cinema, factories, and fields.
- The child sex ratio in India is very low, with a national average of 927 girls per thousand boys. In some areas, it is as low as 850 or 800 because parents prefer to have sons and may opt to abort female fetuses.
- Women in urban areas are at risk of domestic violence, harassment, and assault even within their homes.
Caste inequalities in India - Gender Religion and Caste Class 10 Notes
- Most people in contemporary India still prefer to marry within their own caste.
- Caste groups that had access to education in the old system have achieved better economic status compared to those that did not have access to education.
- The urban middle classes in India still demonstrate a strong preference for the 'upper castes'.
- National Sample Survey data shows that caste is still linked to economic status in India.
- The average economic status of different caste groups in India follows the old caste hierarchy, with the 'upper' castes being the best off, followed by the backward classes, and the Dalits and Adivasis being the worst off.
- The 'upper' castes are overrepresented among the rich, while the lower castes are underrepresented.
- Together, the SC, ST, and OBC groups make up about two-thirds of India's population.
Status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies
- The only way to ensure adequate attention to women-related problems is to have more women as elected representatives.
- To achieve this, it is legally mandatory to reserve a fair proportion of seats for women in elected bodies.
- In India's Panchayati Raj system, one-third of seats in local government bodies are reserved for women.
- The representation of women in India's legislature has historically been very low.
- Less than 10% of Lok Sabha members and less than 5% of State Assembly members are women.
- The Women's Reservation Bill was passed in the Rajya Sabha in March 2010, guaranteeing 33% reservation for women in Parliament and State Legislative bodies - Gender Religion and Caste Class 10 Notes
Religion and politics in India - Gender Religion and Caste Class 10 Notes
- Gandhi believed that politics and religion cannot be separated from each other.
- He defined religion as the moral values and ethics that guide politics, rather than any specific religion like Hinduism or Islam.
- Religion in politics can be beneficial if the ethical values of each religion are utilized.
- Human rights organizations report that religious minorities are often the victims of communal riots in India, indicating the relationship between religion and politics.
- People should be able to express their needs, interests, and demands in politics as members of a religious community.
- It is the responsibility of those in political power to regulate the practice of religion and prevent discrimination and oppression.
Reasons which have contributed to changes in caste system
- Political leaders and social reformers such as Gandhiji and B.R. Ambedkar worked to establish a society without caste inequalities.
- Urbanization, growth of literacy and education, occupational mobility, weakening of landlord's position in the village, and breaking down of caste hierarchy have greatly contributed to this change.
- The Constitution of India has prohibited caste-based discrimination.
- The provision of fundamental rights to all citizens without any discrimination has played a major role in promoting equality.
In conclusion, gender, religion, and caste are important aspects of the social fabric of India, and they have a significant impact on the lives of people. While India has made significant progress in terms of gender equality, there is still a long way to go. Religion and politics should be kept separate, and the government should take steps to protect the rights of religious minorities. The caste system, though abolished by law, still has a presence in Indian society, and efforts should be made to create a casteless society. In order to create a more just and equal society, it is important to recognize and acknowledge the impact of these factors on people's lives and work towards their eradication.
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