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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry - Chapter 1 Solutions - PDF Download

JEE Mains & Advanced

NCERT solutions class 12 Chemistry - chapter 1 is an essential study material for students who are studying in class 12th standard. NCERT solutions for class 12 chemistry chapter 1 provides clear and accurate answers which will help you to understand the chapter well.

Getting good marks in class 12 board examination is more important than in any other class, as the marks obtained in Class 12 board exams will help you to qualify for many important exams.

eSaral’s subject-matter experts have curated NCERT solutions for Class 12 chemistry, which can help you to prepare notes and revise your syllabus.

Sections Covered in Chapter 1 - Solutions

Section Name

Topic Name




Types of Solutions


Expressing Concentration of Solutions




Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions


Ideal and Non-ideal Solutions


Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass


Abnormal Molar Masses

Types of Solutions: Depending on solubility in the solvent, solubles can be classified as supersaturated solubles, unsaturated solubles or saturated solutions.

Expressing Concentration of Solutions: Concentration terms are used to describe how much of one substance is mixed with another. They can be used for any kind of chemical mix, but they're most commonly used when it comes to solutions, where they refer to how much of a particular solute is dissolved in a solvent. Concentration terms terms are relative and do not provide us with the quantitative concentration.

There are a number of ways to quantify the concentration of the solution which are given below:

  • Concentration in parts per million

  • Mass percentage

  • Volume percentage

  • Mass by Volume percentage

  • Molarity

  • Molality

  • Normality

  • Formality

  • Mole Fractio

Solubility: solubility is the amount of a substance that can be dissolved in a specific amount of a specific solvent at a specific temperature. It depends on the nature of the solute and solvent, as well as the pressure and temperature.

Vapour Pressure of Liquid Solutions: Vapour pressure of a liquid solution is the pressure exerted by vapours on a liquid solvent when the solvent is in equilibrium and at a specific temperature. The vapour pressure of a solution changes with the surrounding temperature and with the composition of the liquid.

Ideal and Non-ideal Solutions: An ideal solution is one where all molecules or ions have the same connections. A non-ideal solution is one where the actions of different molecules in the solution are different.

Colligative Properties and Determination of Molar Mass: Colligative properties refer to the physical changes that occur when a solute is added to a solvent. The properties of a solvent depend on the number of solute particles present and the amount of solvent present.

The molar mass can  be calculated from the freezing point depression and the osmotic pressure.

Abnormal Molar Masses: When molar masses are measured and if they are greater or less than the expected molar mass, they are called abnormal molar mass. They are measured using colligative properties.

Important Points of NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 1 – Solutions

  • Definition of a Solution: A solution is a homogeneous combination of two or more solvents in a solvent. 

  • Solubility: The solubility of the solution is determined by the amount of solute dissolved in the solvent at a given temperature and pressure. Examples of solubility include saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated solutions. 

  • Factors Affecting Solubility: Factors such as temperature, pressure, and the nature of the solute and solvent all play a role in determining solubility. 

  • Henry's law: Henry's law of gas solubility is a mathematical equation that states that the partial pressure of a gas above the liquid is proportional to the solubility.

Benefits of Downloading PDF of Class 12 Chemistry NCERT Solutions Chapter 1 Solutions

  • Accurate and Reliable Solutions: eSaral is well-known for providing quality educational content. By downloading the PDF from this trusted platform, you can be sure that you will get accurate and reliable answers to your NCERT textbook questions!

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Frequently Asked Questions

Question 1: What is Raoult’s Law, and when does it apply?

Answer 1: The vapour pressure of a solvent in a solution is related to the pure solvent vapour pressure and the solvent mole fraction in the solution by Raoult's Law. This law applies to ideal solute-solvent solutions in which there is no interaction between solute particles and solvent particles.

Question 2: Explain Henry’s Law and its significance?

Answer 2: According to Henry’s Law, solubility is determined by the partial pressure of a gas over a liquid. This law plays an important role in gas-liquid relationships and gas exchange in liquids.


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