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NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry - Chapter 4 The d and f block Elements - PDF Download

JEE Mains & Advanced

NCERT Solutions Class 12 Chemistry - Chapter The d and f block Elements is study material that provides answers to all the questions which are provided in the exercise of the chapter. These NCERT solutions are presented in an easy-to-understand manner. Also, important tips and tricks are provided along with the solutions. 

With the help of these solutions, you can clear all your doubts and better understand the fundamentals of Class 12 Chemistry. You can also use these solutions to prepare chapter notes and revise during revision. 

Once this Unit has been studied, you will be able to:
• know where the d- and f-block elements are placed in the periodic table
• understand the electronic configurations of the transition (d-) and inner transition (f-) elements
• understand the relative stability of various oxidation states in terms of electrode potential values
• understand the general characteristics of the d-and f-block elements and general horizontal and group trends in them
• explain the properties of the f-block elements
• compare the lanthanoid and actinoid elements with respect to their electronic configurations, oxidation states and chemical behaviour.

Sections Covered in Chapter 4 - The d and f block

Section Name

Topic Name


The d and f block


Position in the Periodic Table


Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements


General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-Block)


Some Important Compounds of Transition Elements


The Lanthanoids


The Actinoids


Some Applications of d- and f-Block Elements

4.1 Position in the Periodic Table: In the periodic table, the d-block is in the middle, between the s-blocks and the p-blocks. The d-orbitals, which are the last energy levels of atoms, get electrons, which gives rise to the four lines of transition metals, 3d, 4d, 5d and 6d.

4.2 Electronic Configurations of the d-Block Elements: in this section, electronic configuration of outer orbitals of the transition elements will be discussed.

4.3 General Properties of the Transition Elements (d-Block): This section will only cover the properties of elements of the first transition series

       4.3.1 Physical Properties

       4.3.2 Variation in atomic and ionic sizes of transition metals: 

       4.3.3 Ionisation enthalpies

       4.3.4 Ooxidation states

       4.3.5 Trends in M2+/M standard electrode potentials

       4.3.6 Trends in M3+/M2+ standard electrode potentials

       4.3.7 Trends in stability of higher oxidation states

       4.3.8 Chemical reactivity and E° values

       4.3.9 Magnetic properties

       4.3.10 Formation of coloured ions

       4.3.11 Formation of complex compounds

       4.3.12 Catalytic properties

       4.3.13 Formation of interstitial compounds

       4.3.14 Alloy formation

4.4 Some important compounds of transition elements: in this section, some important compounds of transition elements will be discussed.

 4.4.1 Oxides and oxoanions of metals

4.5 The Lanthanoides: Following properties of the lanthanoides will be discussed in this section:

       4.5.1 Electronic configuration

       4.5.2 Atomic and ionic sizes 

       4.5.3 Oxidation states

       4.5.4 General characteristics

4.6 The Actinoids:  in this section, various properties of actinoids has been discussed which are mentioned below:

      4.6.1 Electronic configuration

      4.6.2 Ionic sizes

      4.6.3 Oxidation states

      4.6.4 General characteristics and comparison with lanthanoids

4.7 Some application of d- and f- block elements: in this section, various applications of  d- and f- block elements like pigment industry, dry battery cells, photographic industry etc. will be discussed.

Key Features of Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 4 NCERT Solutions

  • Groups 3-12 form the d-block, which occupies a large portion of the medium-sized periodic table. Within these elements, the inner orbitals of the d-block are gradually filled. The f-block, on the other hand, occupies the smallest portion of the table, at the bottom Within this block, the orbitals of 4f and 5f are gradually filled.

  • Three series of transition elements are well known. They correspond to the fillings of 3d, 4d and 5d orbitals. All transition elements have typical metallic properties – high tensile strength, ductility, malleability,  thermal & electrical conductivity and metallic character. Transition elements have high melting & boiling points. This is because (n – 1) d electrons are involved, resulting in strong interatomic bonds. Many of these properties have maxima at about the center of each series. This indicates that a configuration with 1 unpaired electron for each d orbital is an ideal configuration for strong interatomic interactions.

  • Successive ionization enthalpy don’t increase as rapidly as the main group of elements with increasing atomic numbers, so the loss of (n – 1) electrons from (n – 2) orbitals isn’t energetically detrimental. However, the (n– 1) d electrons involved in the behavior of transition elements give them some unique properties. In addition to varying oxidation states, transition elements exhibit paramagnetic, catalytic, and tendency to form coloured ions, intermediate compounds, and complexes.

  • There are lots of different uses for the d and f-blocks and their compounds, like in different types of steels and catalysts, as well as in complexes and organic synthesis.

Benefits of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 4 d and f block elements PDF Download 

There are various Benefits of NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry Chapter 4 d and f block elements PDF Download, which are given below:

  • Portability: Once the PDF is downloaded, it can be saved on your device, so you can take your study material wherever you go.

  • Offline Access: You don’t need to be connected to the internet all the time to access the solutions, which is especially useful in remote areas where internet access is unreliable or limited.

  • Printability: If you prefer to study from a physical copy, you can print the PDF and make a hard copy of your NCERT solutions. Printable PDFs are especially useful for taking notes and highlighting important points.

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  • Digital Accessibility: NCERT solutions can be downloaded as a PDF form at eSaral. You can study online on your computer or tablet, or on your smartphone.

Frequently Asked Questions

Question 1: What are d and f block elements?

Answer 1: The D and F block elements are intermediate transition metals. D-block elements are transition metals from the 3rd to the 12th groups on the periodic table. F-block elements are lanthanide and actinide transition metals from the lower part of the periodic table to the top.

Question 2: What ois the significance of transition metals?

Answer 2: Transition metals play an important role in chemistry and in everyday life. Transition metals are catalysts, alloys, and biological processes. Transition metals exhibit multiple oxidation states, making them versatile in the formation of a wide variety of compounds.


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