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NCERT Solutions Class 9 Social Science

JEE Mains & Advanced

eSaral provides free PDF downloads of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science, which can make your introduction to 9th-grade Social Science more sustainable. By using these solutions, you can improve your Social Science exam preparations. They cover all the questions in each chapter of the four prescribed textbooks as per the syllabus, including important questions for the exam.

Each NCERT Solution aims to make your study simple and interesting. Whether it's Science, Maths, English, or other subjects, having access to NCERT Solutions for Class 9 can make studying easier. You can also download NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Maths to revise the entire syllabus and achieve higher marks in your examinations.

Class 9 Social Science is an engaging subject with four important segments. Within each segment, multiple chapters require students' utmost attention in preparation. To simplify the process, you can download and refer to the Class 9 Social Science Chapter solutions to find accurate answers for all exercise questions. By studying these solutions, you can enhance your answering skills and perform better in your exams.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Free PDF Download

It can be overwhelming to deal with so much material on a subject that you are still getting familiar with. In 9th-grade Social Science, there are four branches to study, which can be quite a lot. But don't worry, eSaral has fantastic resources that can make your journey through Social Science easier. The latest edition of NCERT Solutions is the best choice for all four branches of the subject according to the CBSE syllabus. With these helpful resources, you can navigate through the subject with ease.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History

Some students try to memorize all the facts and important events mentioned in their textbooks. But to score well, it's essential to understand the concepts properly. That's why eSaral has its expert faculty design special NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History. These solutions are created to help students build their confidence, so they can take the exam without any fear. By using these solutions, students can grasp the subject better and perform well in their exams.

Here is the list of chapters that are included in NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science History syllabus:

NCERT Solutions Class 9 Social Science (India and the Contemporary World - I) Chapter-wise List

Chapter 1 - The French Revolution

Chapter 2 - Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

Chapter 3 - Nazism and the Rise of Hitler

Chapter 4 - Forest Society and Colonialism

Chapter 5 - Pastoralists in the Modern World

Chapter 6 - Peasants and Farmers

Chapter 7 - History and Sport: The Story of Cricket

Chapter 8 - Clothing: A Social History

Here is a brief explanation of each chapter included in India and the Contemporary World - I

Chapter 1 - The French Revolution

The revolutionary protests in France happened for several reasons. Firstly, the country's economy was burdened due to wars fought with Britain for American independence, leading to higher taxes and frustration among the public. Secondly, birth privileges replaced merit, causing commoners to have limited opportunities for growth in society. The concentration of power in the hands of a few families also caused discontent. The middle class, however, supported the revolution, raising their voice against unjust practices.

The lower class benefited from the revolution, gaining new opportunities. The nobles, royal families, and the Church had to give up power, leaving them disappointed. The French Revolution influenced the world, leading to the adoption of democracy in many countries and the abolition of feudal systems.

During the French Revolution, some democratic rights were established, such as equality before the law and in opportunities, freedom of speech and expression, and the right to constitutional remedies. However, the message of universal rights had contradictions as it only applied to men, ignoring women and limiting voting rights for citizens.

Napoleon Bonaparte rose to power after the collapse of the directory system, which was marked by internal conflicts among its members. He became a military ruler and played a significant role in shaping the future of France.

Chapter 2 - Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution

Before 1905, Russia faced several challenges in its social, economic, and political conditions. The majority of the population was engaged in agriculture, while industry was limited and owned mostly privately. Workers moved to cities for factory work, and the peasantry had little opportunity for growth in society due to birth-based privileges.

Economically, Russia was going through tough times, with rising prices of basic goods and a decrease in real earnings. The well-known St. Petersburg strike of 1905 marked the beginning of the revolution, with strikes spreading across the country, demanding a constituent assembly.

Politically, before 1914, political parties were not allowed, but the Russian Social Democratic Workers Party was formed in 1898. The party later split into Mensheviks and Bolsheviks, with Lenin leading the latter. The working population in Russia was different from other European countries as not all workers left the countryside for factory work. Some remained in villages and commuted daily. Metal workers were considered the "aristocrats" of the working class due to their skills.

The Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917 due to the people's discontent with the government's decisions during World War I, food scarcity, and large-scale fatalities of soldiers. The Jallianwala Bagh Massacre in 1919 saw hundreds of innocent civilians killed by British soldiers, causing widespread national indignation. The Simon Commission faced opposition in India for not including any Indian member, leading to protests and the slogan "Go Back."

The February Revolution in 1917 resulted in the end of the Tsar's dictatorial rule and an expansion of trade unions. The October Revolution was led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks, leading to the establishment of socialism in Russia. The Bolsheviks made significant changes after the October Revolution, nationalizing banks and industries, redistributing land, and making administrative changes.

The Kulaks were wealthy peasants targeted by Stalin for allegedly hoarding food. The Duma was Russia's elected consultative parliament formed during the 1905 Revolution. Women workers played a significant role in the February Revolution but faced lower wages compared to men. Stalin's collectivization program aimed to improve grain supplies but faced resistance from peasants and caused food shortages. Liberals advocated for individual liberties and an elected parliamentary system but with limited voting rights.

Chapter 3 - Nazism and the Rise of Hitler

The Weimar Republic faced several problems after World War I. The Treaty of Versailles imposed unfair terms on Germany, leading to public discontent. The country's economy crumbled as it was burdened with war reparations, causing an increase in the prices of essential goods and depletion of gold reserves. The democratically elected governments were unable to handle the economic crisis effectively, leading to the rise of Adolf Hitler and the acceptance of his dictatorship by the public.

Nazism gained popularity in Germany by the 1930s for various reasons. The democratic governments failed to address the economic crisis, leaving people frustrated with weak leadership. Adolf Hitler promised to restore Germany's dignity, giving hope to the people. The Nazi Party suppressed other political parties, monopolizing the public's attention and support.

Nazi thinking had peculiar features, including a belief in racial hierarchy with German Aryans at the top and Jews at the bottom. They advocated for the strong to rule over the poor and sought territorial expansion for more power and influence.

Nazi propaganda played a significant role in creating hatred for Jews. They controlled the media, newspapers, and school curriculum to portray Jews as inferior and responsible for societal problems, intensifying traditional Christian hatred against them.

In Nazi society, women had limited roles, mainly as housewives and child-bearers, with no involvement in the military or industries. In contrast, during the French Revolution, women actively protested for their rights and were granted equality at work and in rights.

The Nazi state established total control over its people through propaganda that glorified their actions and hid the negatives. Media manipulation and psychological tactics ensured positive perceptions of the Nazi Party. Citizens were closely monitored, and dissent was severely punished, instilling fear and preventing opposition.

Chapter 4 - Forest Society and Colonialism

Deforestation is the process of forests disappearing, and it's been happening for a long time, especially during colonial rule. As the population grew, people cleared forests to make space for farming, and the British promoted the cultivation of cash crops like jute, sugar, wheat, and cotton. The expansion of railways for trade and transportation also led to more trees being cut down.

Large areas of natural forests were cleared to establish plantations of tea, coffee, and rubber for European demands. Concerns about the reckless use of trees led to the rise of commercial forestry, where specific types of trees were cut down for timber.

These changes had a significant impact on the lives of villagers who relied on the forests for various needs like fuel, food, and materials. They faced hardships due to restrictive forest laws and often resorted to stealing wood.

The government also banned shifting cultivation, affecting many communities that relied on this traditional practice. Hunting was restricted, and some areas were reserved solely for hunting purposes.

Forests provided new trade opportunities, but they didn't necessarily improve the well-being of the people. Many forest communities rebelled against the changes imposed upon them.

In other regions like Java, the Dutch introduced forest management, restricting villagers' access to forests and imposing various rules and taxes.

Today, there is a growing focus on conserving forests, with some communities playing a vital role in protecting dense forests known as sacred groves.

In summary, deforestation has a long history, and it has affected people's lives and ecosystems in various ways. The need for conservation has become increasingly important to safeguard forests and their benefits for both nature and communities.

Chapter 5 - Pastoralists in the Modern World

Nomadic tribes move from place to place to find food and water for themselves and their animals. This continuous movement benefits the environment in several ways:

Ecological Balance: As nomads move from one area to another, the environment gets a chance to recover and regrow. This helps maintain a balance in nature.

Prevents Overgrazing: Nomads don't stay in one place for too long, so they avoid overgrazing the land. This prevents the depletion of future grazing areas and allows vegetation to thrive.

Natural Fertilization: The manure from nomadic animals helps fertilize the soil, making it more suitable for future grazing. This natural fertilization keeps the land healthy.

Now, let's look at how the colonial government in India brought in different laws that changed the lives of pastoralists:

a. Wasteland Rules: The colonial government considered uncultivated lands or wastelands as unproductive. They encouraged individuals to settle these lands, which were often used by pastoralists for grazing. This expansion of cultivation reduced the available pastures for pastoralists, causing problems for them.

b. Forest Acts: Various forest acts were enacted to produce valuable timber, and some forests were declared 'Reserved,' denying pastoralists access to these areas. In 'Protected' forests, their movements were severely restricted, affecting their traditional way of life.

c. Criminal Tribes Act: The British authorities saw nomadic people with suspicion and passed the Criminal Tribes Act in 1871, classifying certain communities, including pastoralists, as criminals by birth and nature. This forced them to settle in one place and controlled their movements.

d. Grazing Tax: The colonial government imposed a tax on grazing animals to increase revenue. Pastoralists had to pay this tax, and to pay less, they had to decrease the number of animals they took for grazing.

Similar changes were forced upon the Maasai community in East Africa:

Loss of Grazing Lands: The Maasai lost their best grazing lands when colonial powers divided Maasailand between British Kenya and German Tanzania. This left them with limited pastures and restricted their traditional way of life.

Forest Laws: Similar to India, various forest laws in East Africa restricted the access of pastoralists to certain forests and grazing areas.

Border Closures: The division of the region by colonial powers restricted the movement of Maasai herders and limited their access to pastures.

In both India and East Africa, colonial policies and laws drastically changed the lives of pastoral communities, affecting their traditional nomadic lifestyles and access to grazing lands.

Chapter 6 - Peasants and Farmers

In the 18th century, the Open Field System in England brought different experiences for different groups:

Rich Farmers: Wealthy farmers wanted to increase wool output due to rising prices. They privatized the best parts of common lands and open fields to provide better pastures for their sheep. They also forced poorer farmers off the common lands to have exclusive access to resources.

Laborers: Poor laborers relied on common lands for their livelihood. Under the Open Field System, they worked for landowners in exchange for food, lodging, and a small wage. But as the system changed, they were paid wages only during the harvest season, making them vulnerable to exploitation.

Peasant Women: The Open Field System allowed for communal living, where everyone shared resources. Peasant women could graze livestock, pick fruits, and gather firewood on common lands. However, as the system disappeared, these activities became challenging, affecting their lives negatively.

Enclosures in England were driven by the rising population, increasing demand for food, and higher prices of agricultural products. Enclosures allowed wealthy landowners to make long-term investments in land, enhance soil fertility, and expand land under their control for market-oriented production.

Captain Swing was a symbolic name used in threatening letters by laborers opposing the use of threshing machines. It represented the anger and discontent of laborers towards the use of technology that led to the enclosure movement, depriving them of their livelihoods.

The westward expansion of settlers in the USA resulted in the forced displacement and destruction of American Indians. Land cultivation led to the destruction of grass and trees, causing devastating dust storms and blizzards in the 1930s.

Mechanical harvesting machines in the USA had advantages like increased efficiency and production but disadvantaged poorer farmers who lost their jobs and faced financial hardships.

Lessons from the conversion of the countryside in the USA include the need for sustainable land use, respecting ecological conditions, and caring for the environment to prevent degradation.

The British insisted on Indian farmers growing opium to balance their trade with China. Opium was exported to China to pay for tea imports, as China only accepted bullion as payment.

Indian farmers were reluctant to grow opium due to the crop's demanding nature, loss of fertile land for other crops, high rent, and low government prices, leaving them with little profit.

Chapter 7 - History and Sport: The Story of Cricket

The chapter "The Story of Cricket" in Class 7 explains everything about the game of cricket, from its history to its evolution over the years. It tells us that cricket started in England about 500 years ago as a game with a ball and bat. The bat was initially curved like a hockey stick. Test matches, played for five days, are the only format that can end in a draw.

Cricket was first played by children and later taken up by adults in the 17th century. It might have evolved from the older game of bowls, with a batsman trying to stop the ball from hitting the target. The first reference to cricket being played as an adult sport was in 1611 when two men were prosecuted for playing on a Sunday instead of going to church.

Cricket laws were written in 1744, stating that two umpires must decide all disputes. The stumps must be 22 inches high, and the bail must be six inches. The ball should weigh between 5 to 6 ounces.

The first cricket club was formed in the 1760s at Hambledon, and later in 1787, the Marylebone Cricket Club was established. Bowlers introduced variations in bowling after 1770.

In this chapter, students learn about the history of cricket and various aspects related to the sport.

Chapter 8 - Clothing: A Social History

In the 18th century, there were several reasons for changes in clothing patterns and materials. European colonization of many parts of the world, the spread of democratic ideas, and the rise of industrialization influenced how people viewed clothing. People began mixing and matching styles and materials from different cultures. Western clothing styles for men became famous worldwide.

In France, from 1294 until the French Revolution in 1789, there were sumptuary laws. These laws tried to control the lifestyles of the lower classes by limiting the amount and type of clothing they could buy. The laws restricted certain clothing, consumption of specific foods and beverages, and hunting in certain areas for those considered socially inferior.

European dress codes were different from Indian dress codes in various ways. In Europe, dress regulations were based on social and economic factors, while in India, they were based on caste. Certain materials were restricted for lower castes in Europe, whereas lower castes in India were prohibited from wearing certain clothing.

In the 19th century, even as men adopted Western clothing, women in India were still expected to wear traditional Indian dress. This showed the lower position of women in society during that time.

Winston Churchill's comment about Mahatma Gandhi being a 'seditious Middle Temple Lawyer' and a 'half-naked fakir' was provoked when Gandhi wore a dhoti to the Viceroy's residence. Gandhi's dress was a symbol of his pride in his country and people, particularly the peasants, and represented his sense of belonging and strength.

Gandhi's dream of clothing the nation in khadi appealed to only some sections of Indians. Many socially disadvantaged individuals found new opportunities and self-confidence in Western dress, while others found the khadi too expensive and impractical.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography – Contemporary India-I

Here is the list of chapters that are included in NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Geography – Contemporary India-I:

NCERT Solutions Class 9 Social Science (Contemporary India) Chapter-Wise List

Chapter 1 - India - Size and Location

Chapter 2 - Physical Features of India

Chapter 3 - Drainage

Chapter 4 - Climate

Chapter 5 - Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Chapter 6 - Population

Here is a brief explanation of each chapter included in Class 9 Social Science Geography – Contemporary India-I:

Chapter 1 - India - Size and Location

India is located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere, between latitudes 8°4’N and 37°6’N, and longitudes 68°7’E and 97°25’E. The Tropic of Cancer divides India into two almost equal parts. It is the 7th largest country in the world, covering about 2.4% of the total geographical area.

India has a land boundary of about 15,200 km and a coastline of 7,516.6 km, including the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep. The country is surrounded by mountains in the northwest, north, and northeast. Towards the south, it tapers and extends towards the Indian Ocean, creating the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on the east.

The standard time for India is based on the Standard Meridian of India, passing through Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh (82°30’E).

India holds a central location between East and West Asia and is a southward extension of the Asian continent. It has a long coastline on the Indian Ocean, connecting countries of Europe and East Asia. India has had extensive trade and cultural connections with other countries over the ages. Spices, muslin, and other goods were exported from India, while influences of Greek sculpture and architectural styles from West Asia can be seen in different parts of the country.

India shares its land boundaries with Pakistan, Afghanistan, China (Tibet), Nepal, Bhutan, Myanmar, and Bangladesh. It also has strong geographical and historical links with its southern neighbors, Sri Lanka and Maldives.

Chapter 2 - Physical Features of India

India's physical features can be categorized into six major divisions: the Himalayan Mountains, the Northern Plains, the Peninsular Plateau, the Indian Desert, the Coastal Plains, and the Islands. Let's take a closer look at each of them.

The Himalayan Mountains are located in the northern borders of India and run from west to east, consisting of three parallel ranges. The Great or Inner Himalayas, Himachal or lesser Himalayas, and Shiwaliks make up these ranges. They are known for their lofty peaks, with the Great Himalayas having the highest mountains.

The Northern Plains are formed by the Indus, Ganga, and Brahmaputra river systems, along with their tributaries. They extend over a vast area and can be divided into three parts: Punjab Plains, Ganga Plains, and Brahmaputra Plains.

The Peninsular Plateau is a tableland composed of old rocks, and it is divided into the Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau. The Deccan Plateau is known for its distinct feature called the Deccan Trap, which has black soil.

The Indian Desert lies towards the western margins of the Aravali Hills, and it is a sandy plain with dunes. It receives very low rainfall and has a dry climate with minimal vegetation.

The Coastal Plains consist of narrow strips of plain lands on the eastern and western sides of the peninsular plateau. The Eastern Coastal Plain lies between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal, while the Western Coastal Plain is sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea.

The Islands of India include the Andaman and Nicobar groups. The Andaman Islands are in the north, and the Nicobar Islands are in the south. These islands have an equatorial climate and are covered with thick forests.

India's diverse physical features offer various possibilities for development, with the mountains providing water and forest wealth, the plains serving as granaries, the plateau housing valuable minerals for industrialization, and the coastal regions and islands offering opportunities for fishing and port activities.

Chapter 3 - Drainage

India's rivers are divided into two major groups: the Himalayan Rivers and the Peninsular Rivers. The Himalayan rivers are mostly perennial, meaning they have water throughout the year and receive water from rain and melted snow from high mountains. Two major Himalayan rivers, the Indus and the Brahmaputra, originate from the north of the mountain ranges.

On the other hand, Peninsular rivers are seasonal, and their flow depends on rainfall. Most of these rivers originate in the Western Ghats and flow towards the Bay of Bengal. The major Himalayan rivers include the Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra. The Indus is one of the longest rivers in the world, while the Ganga is joined by many tributaries from the Himalayas. The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet and takes a 'U-turn' before entering India.

In the Peninsular region, there are rivers like the Narmada, the Tapi, the Godavari, the Mahanadi, the Krishna, and the Kaveri. Lakes are also an essential part of India's landscape. Some lakes are permanent, while others form during the rainy season. They have different origins, such as glacial, tectonic, or formed by river action and human activities.

Lakes have various benefits, like regulating river flow, preventing flooding, providing water for human activities, and offering recreational opportunities. However, lakes and rivers are facing pollution due to untreated sewage and industrial effluents. Efforts are being made to clean the rivers and protect these valuable water resources that play a crucial role in India's economy and ecosystem.

Chapter 4 - Climate

Climate refers to the long-term weather conditions over a large area, while weather refers to the short-term state of the atmosphere at any given time. The elements of weather and climate are the same, including temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind, humidity, and precipitation.

Several factors influence the climate of a place. Latitude affects the amount of solar energy received, making temperatures lower towards the poles. Altitude also plays a role, with higher areas being cooler. Pressure and wind systems, distance from the sea, ocean currents, and relief features all contribute to the climate of a region.

India's climate is influenced by its position on the earth's surface, with the Tropic of Cancer passing through it. Altitude and pressure conditions, along with the monsoon winds, have a significant impact on India's weather. The monsoons, seasonal winds that bring heavy rainfall, are crucial for agriculture and are eagerly awaited by people all over the country.

India experiences four main seasons: winter, summer, the rainy season, and a transition season. Each season has its characteristics and importance for agriculture and daily life. The distribution of rainfall varies across the country, with some regions receiving heavy rainfall, while others experience dry conditions.

The monsoon plays a unifying role in India, as it affects the entire subcontinent and provides water for agricultural activities. People from all parts of the country eagerly await the arrival of the monsoon, making it a unifying bond for the nation.

Chapter 5 - Natural Vegetation and Wildlife

Natural vegetation refers to plants that grow naturally without human help and have been undisturbed by humans for a long time. This is also known as virgin vegetation.

The term "flora" refers to the plants of a specific region or period, while "fauna" refers to animal species. The diverse flora and fauna in the world are influenced by various factors:


The type of land affects the natural vegetation directly and indirectly. Fertile plains are used for agriculture while undulating and rough terrains support grasslands and woodlands with diverse wildlife. Different types of soil also provide a basis for different vegetation.


Temperature, humidity, and precipitation play a crucial role in determining the character and extent of vegetation. The duration of sunlight in different places varies due to differences in latitude, altitude, and season.

In India, several major types of vegetation are found:

Tropical Evergreen Forests: Found in regions with more than 200 cm of rainfall and a short dry season, these forests have tall trees, shrubs, and creepers, and they remain green throughout the year.

Tropical Deciduous Forests: Also known as monsoon forests, they shed their leaves during the dry summer. These forests are divided into moist deciduous and dry deciduous based on the amount of rainfall.

Thorn Forests and Scrubs: Found in the northwestern part of India, these forests have scattered trees and bushes with adaptations to conserve water.

Montane Forests: These are found in the mountains, and their type depends on the altitude. Alpine vegetation is present at higher altitudes.

Mangrove Forests: Found in coastal areas influenced by tides, mangroves are submerged in water and provide habitat for various species.

India is rich in wildlife, with animals like elephants, rhinoceroses, tigers, camels, lions, and many birds inhabiting its diverse habitats.

However, the flora and fauna are facing major threats due to hunting, pollution, and deforestation. To protect them, the government has established biosphere reserves, and botanical gardens, and initiated various conservation projects like Project Tiger and Project Rhino. There are also national parks, wildlife sanctuaries, and zoological gardens dedicated to preserving our natural heritage.

Chapter 6 - Population

India is a highly populated country, with over 1.2 billion people as of 2011, making up about 17.5% of the world's population. Uttar Pradesh has the most people, accounting for around 16% of India's total population. Nearly half of India's population lives in just five states: Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal, and Andhra Pradesh.

India is considered one of the most densely populated countries globally, with a population density of 382 persons per square kilometer.

The population of a country is constantly changing due to three processes: birth, death, and migration. Population growth is the change in the number of inhabitants over a specific time, expressed in absolute numbers or as a percentage change per year. Birth rates in India have historically been higher than death rates.

The age composition of the population is divided into children (below 15 years), the working-age group (15-59 years), and the aged (above 59 years). The sex ratio, which measures the number of females per 1000 males, is an important indicator of gender equality.

India's literacy rate is 73%, meaning that 73 out of every 100 people aged 7 years and above can read and write in any language. The occupational structure categorizes people based on their types of jobs: primary, secondary, and tertiary activities.

Health is a crucial aspect of population composition, impacting development. Improvements in public health have been achieved through disease prevention and modern medical practices.

Adolescents, aged 10 to 19 years, are a valuable resource for the future, comprising one-fifth of India's population. The National Population Policy (NPP) 2000 aims to provide free and compulsory school education up to age 14 and focuses on reducing infant mortality, promoting delayed marriage for girls, and improving family welfare. It also addresses the needs of adolescents, including protection from unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases, education about the risks of unprotected sex, and access to affordable contraceptive services and nutritional support.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Political Science (Civics) – Democratic Politics-I  

Here is the list of chapters that are included in NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Political Science (Civics) – Democratic Politics-I 

NCERT Solutions Class 9 Social Science (Democratic Politics-I) Chapter-Wise List

Chapter 1 - What is Democracy? Why Democracy?

Chapter 2 - Constitutional Design

Chapter 3 - Electoral Politics

Chapter 4 - Working of Institutions

Chapter 5 - Democratic Rights

Here is a brief explanation of each chapter included in Class 9 Social Science (Democratic Politics-I) :

Chapter 1 - What is Democracy? Why Democracy?

Democracy is a type of government where the rulers are elected by the people. In a democratic country, the government is chosen through elections, and the people have a say in who leads them. However, not all countries with rulers are democratic. Some countries may have rulers who took power through force, like in Myanmar, or under dictators like Pinochet in Chile.

Certain features of democracy set it apart from other forms of government. One of the main features is that major decisions are made by elected leaders, not by those in power through force. Free and fair elections are crucial in a democracy, where people have a fair chance of changing the current rulers. Each citizen has one vote, and each vote holds equal value.

Democracy is not perfect, and there are some cons to it. For instance, leaders change frequently, which can lead to instability. Also, the decision-making process involves many people, which can cause delays. However, democracy has several advantages. It is more accountable, improves the quality of decision-making through discussions, provides a way to resolve conflicts peacefully, and upholds the dignity of citizens.

Democracy can have broader meanings beyond just a form of government. It can be applied to any sphere of life, aiming to create an ideal standard for all democracies. However, no country perfectly meets this ideal. Still, understanding democracy as an ideal helps us value and judge existing democracies. The most common form of democracy today is being governed by elected representatives, but smaller communities may use other ways of making democratic decisions, like direct decision-making in a village's Gram Sabha.

Chapter 2 - Constitutional Design

A Constitution is a set of important rules that both the people and the government of a country must follow. It is like the supreme law of the land, and it decides the rights and duties of the citizens, the government's powers, and how the government should work.

In South Africa, there used to be a system called apartheid, where people were divided based on their skin color. White Europeans controlled the country and treated themselves as superior while discriminating against non-white people. Apartheid was challenged by groups like the African National Congress (ANC), and after many protests, negotiations led to the formation of a new democratic government with a constitution that protected everyone's rights.

The Constitution is essential because it builds trust among people with different opinions, outlines how the government functions, sets limits on government power and reflects the people's desires for a better society.

In India, the Constitution was created by the people through representatives, not given by any foreign power. It aims for equality, freedom, and justice for all citizens. The Constitution was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, and it can be amended over time to keep it updated and relevant.

In summary, a constitution is a crucial document that guides a country's functioning, ensuring fairness and protecting the rights of its citizens.

Chapter 3 - Electoral Politics

Elections are important because they let people choose their representatives, who make important decisions and shape the future of the country. They help maintain peace by implementing good policies and laws. Elections ensure that no government stays in power indefinitely and allow citizens to participate in their country's betterment.

A democratic election requires that everyone can vote with equal value, parties offer real choices, elections happen regularly, and the chosen representatives are preferred by the people. Political competition is good as it motivates leaders to work for the country's benefit.

In India, elections for Lok Sabha and Vidhan Sabha are held every five years. The country is divided into constituencies, and voters elect one representative for each. Some seats are reserved for backward sections. A voters' list is prepared, and candidates need to meet certain criteria to be nominated. During the campaign, candidates connect with voters, and no bribes or religious appeals are allowed.

On election day, voters cast their votes using electronic voting machines (EVM). India's elections are considered democratic due to the independent Election Commission, people's active participation, and challenges to maintain fairness, which include money and criminal influence.

Chapter 4 - Working of Institutions

The process of making major policy decisions in India involves several key authorities and institutions. The President, as the head of the state, plays a significant role, while the Prime Minister, who leads the government, takes most decisions in Cabinet meetings. The Parliament, consisting of the President and two Houses (Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha), is the supreme political authority representing the people. The Parliament passes laws and controls the government's money. The Council of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister, assists in decision-making. Additionally, the judiciary, including the Supreme Court and High Courts, interprets the Constitution and safeguards fundamental rights.

Chapter 5 - Democratic Rights

To ensure a democratic government, elections, and institutions must uphold citizens' rights. No elected ruler, no matter how suitable, should exceed these limits set by democratic rights. Class 9 Social Science's Chapter 5 from the book Democratic Politics-I emphasizes the importance of practicing these rights responsibly in a democratic society. History shows the consequences of lacking democratic rights, such as in Guantanamo Bay, Saudi Arabia, and the ethnic massacre in Kosovo. In a democracy, rights are essential as they protect minorities from majority tyranny and ensure equal treatment. The Indian Constitution enshrines Fundamental Rights, including the right to constitutional remedies, equality, freedom, and protection against exploitation. These rights are essential for a functioning democracy and have expanded over time to encompass various aspects of life. The National Human Rights Commission safeguards human rights in India. Untouchability, a severe form of social discrimination, is punishable under the Constitution.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Economics

Here is the list of chapters that are included in NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Political Science (Civics) – Democratic Politics-I

NCERT Solutions Class 9 Social Science (Economics) Chapter-Wise List

Chapter 1 - The Story of Village Palampur

Chapter 2 - People as Resource

Chapter 3 - Poverty as Challenge

Chapter 4 - Food Security in India

Here is a brief explanation of each chapter included in Class 9 Social Science (Economics):

Chapter 1 - The Story of Village Palampur

Palampur is a hypothetical village where farming is the main activity, but there are also other activities like small-scale manufacturing, dairy, and transport. The village has good infrastructure with roads, transport, electricity, schools, and health centers. Production in Palampur requires four essential components: land, labor, physical capital, and knowledge. Farming is the primary occupation, and farmers practice multiple cropping to increase yield. However, modern farming methods have led to the depletion of natural resources like soil fertility and groundwater. The land distribution in Palampur shows disparities, with some families owning large plots while others are landless. Non-farm activities like dairy, small-scale manufacturing, and trade also contribute to the village's economy. Transport services have also developed, providing livelihoods to many in the village.

Chapter 2 - People as Resource

'People as Resource' refers to a country's working population in terms of their productive skills and abilities. Developing human capital through education and healthcare investment leads to economic growth. Economic activities are divided into primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors. Women used to work in insecure jobs with low incomes, but education and skill formation can improve their prospects. The quality of the population depends on literacy, health, and skill formation. Education enhances societal growth, while healthcare improvement is a priority for the country. Unemployment exists in both rural and urban areas, with different characteristics. Agriculture remains a significant employer, but other sectors are also absorbing labor.

Chapter 3 - Poverty as Challenge

In our daily lives, we witness poverty in various forms, such as landless laborers in villages, overcrowded slums in cities, and child workers. Poverty is a major challenge for India, and it is defined by hunger, lack of shelter, clean water, and regular employment. Social scientists measure poverty using income, consumption levels, literacy rates, and access to basic amenities. The poverty line is determined based on the minimum requirements for food, clothing, education, and healthcare. India has made progress in reducing poverty, but challenges remain due to historical factors, income inequalities, and lack of opportunities. Anti-poverty measures and economic growth are essential to address the issue effectively in the future.

Chapter 4 - Food Security in India

Food security ensures that food is available, accessible, and affordable to all people at all times. It depends on the Public Distribution System (PDS) and government actions during times of threats to food security. Food security has different dimensions, including the availability of food through production and imports, accessibility of food to everyone, and affordability for individuals to buy sufficient and nutritious food. India has faced challenges like famine and hunger during natural calamities, affecting vulnerable groups like landless laborers and the urban poor. To address food security, India adopted measures like the Green Revolution, buffer stock creation, and the Public Distribution System to distribute food grains at affordable prices. Cooperatives also play a role in ensuring food security in certain regions.

Frequently Asked Questions

Question 1: Define the term “ Margin”?

Answer 1: Margin can be defined as a difference between a product’s selling price and the total cost of the product.

Question 2: NCERT Solutions for class 9 Social Science includes all types of questions?

Answer 2: Yes, it contains all questions and answers that are prescribed in the NCERT textbook and are accessible from anywhere. They can be downloaded from eSaral’s website for free.



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