Power Sharing Notes Class 10thClass 10
Power sharing is a crucial aspect of a democratic system of government. It ensures that no one individual or group has complete control over the decision-making process, and that all voices are heard and taken into account. The concept of power sharing is particularly relevant in diverse societies, where different communities have varying needs, interests and identities. In this article on Power Sharing Notes Class 10th, we will explore the various forms of power sharing that exist in different countries and the reasons why power sharing is important for the effective functioning of a democracy. We will also examine how power sharing can help to prevent conflicts and promote social harmony, and the challenges that are faced in implementing power sharing arrangements.
Ethnic - Power Sharing Notes Class 10th
Ethnic means a social division based on shared culture and common descent. People belonging to an ethnic group need not have the same religion or nationality
Majoritarianism is the belief that the majority community can rule a country in whichever way it wants, disregarding the wishes and needs of the minority
Power Sharing in Sri Lanka - Power Sharing Notes Class 10th
- Two major social groups consist of Sri Lankan Tamils and Indian Tamils.
- Sinhala-speaking individuals, who make up 74 percent of the population, practice Buddhism.
- Tamil-speaking individuals, who make up 18 percent of the population, practice either Hinduism or Islam.
- Sri Lankan Tamils account for 13 percent of the population.
- Indian Tamils account for 5 percent of the population.
Establishment of Sinhala supremacy- Power Sharing Notes Class 10th
- Sri Lanka gained independence in 1948.
- The democratically elected government took a series of steps to establish Sinhala supremacy.
- In 1956, they passed an Act to make Sinhala the official language.
- The government implemented preferential policies favoring Sinhala applicants for University positions and government jobs.
- The Constitution included provisions for State protection and fostering of Buddhism.
- Sri Lankan Tamils felt that the major political parties, led by the Buddhist Sinhala leaders, were insensitive to their language and culture, and the government policies denied them equal political rights.
- In response, Sri Lankan Tamils formed parties and engaged in struggles for the recognition of Tamil, regional autonomy, and equality of opportunity in all areas.
- The measures taken by the government to establish Sinhala supremacy resulted in a Civil War.
Ethnic composition of Belgium
- Belgium, a small country in Europe, has a population of just over one crore.
- 59 percent of the total population lives in the Flemish region and speak Dutch.
- Another 40 percent of the population lives in the Wallonia region and speak French.
- The remaining one percent of Belgians speak German.
- In the Belgian capital, Brussels, 80 percent of the population speaks French, while the remaining 20 percent speaks Dutch.
Belgian power-sharing model - Power Sharing Notes Class 10th
- The Belgian leaders made power-sharing arrangements that were different and more innovative than those of any other country.
- They recognized the existence of regional differences and cultural diversities and amended their Constitution four times between 1970 and 1993 to reflect this.
- These amendments were made to ensure power-sharing among the different linguistic and cultural groups in the country.
The major elements of the Belgian Model are
- The Constitution mandates that the number of Dutch and French-speaking ministers in the Central Government must be equal, and no single community can make unilateral decisions.
- The State Governments are not subordinate to the Central Government.
- In the capital city of Brussels, there is a separate government where both communities have equal representation.
- A third type of government, the 'Community Government', is elected by individuals belonging to one language community, regardless of where they reside.
- This government has the authority to make decisions on cultural, educational, and language-related matters.
‘Lebanon’—conflict related to power-sharing disputes were resolved by power sharing
- In Lebanon's capital city, Beirut, people from various communities engaged in a bitter Civil War that resulted in the deaths of thousands and the loss of livelihood for many.
- At the conclusion of this conflict, Lebanon's leaders came together and agreed to some basic rules for power-sharing among different communities.
- According to these rules, the President must be from the Maronite sect of Catholic Christians, the Prime Minister must be from the Sunni Muslim community, the Deputy Prime Minister must be from an Orthodox Christian sect, and the Speaker must be a Shia Muslim.
- The pact also included an agreement that the Christians would not seek French protection, and the Muslims would not seek unification with the neighboring state of Syria.
Prudential reasons - Power Sharing Notes Class 10th
Power Sharing Notes Class 10th -Prudential reasons stress that power-sharing would bring out better outcomes by helping to reduce the possibility of any conflict between the social groups and power-sharing is a good way to ensure the stability of political order through unity of the nation.
Moral reasons uphold power-sharing as the very spirit of democracy. A democratic rule involves sharing power with those affected by its exercise. People have the right to be consulted and have equal participation in the government.- Power Sharing Notes Class 10th
Principles of a good democracy
- Prudential reasons emphasize that power-sharing can produce better outcomes by reducing the likelihood of conflicts between social groups.
- Power-sharing is considered an effective approach to ensuring the stability of the political order by promoting national unity.
System of checks an of balances
- It is emphasized that the power of a government should not be vested in a single individual or a select group of people.
- The source of all political power is the people themselves.
- Diverse groups must be given due respect and everyone should have a voice in shaping public policies.
Power-sharing in contemporary democracies
- The principle of horizontal distribution of power entails sharing power among various branches of government, such as the legislature, executive, and judiciary.
- This system permits different branches of government to wield distinct powers, despite being situated at the same level.
- In a democratic system, power is exercised by government officials and ministers who are accountable to Parliament or State Assemblies.
- The judiciary, consisting of judges appointed by the executive, has the power to scrutinize the functioning of the executive branch and the laws passed by the legislature.
- The horizontal distribution of power is also known as the system of checks and balances.
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