In the following flow chart,

Question:

In the following flow chart, replace the symbols a,b,c and d with appropriate terms. Briefly explain the process and give any two application of it.

Solution:

a = Glyceraldehyde – 3 – phosphate

b = PEP (Phosphoenol pyruvic acid)

c = C2H5OH

d = Lactic acid

The process is fermentation. Aerobic conditions are present in the cell. When there are anaerobic conditions the pyruvic acid gets converted to either lactic acid and it is known as homolactic fermentation. In some micro-organisms which are naturally anaerobic like yeast. They form C2H5OH and release CO2. This is known as alcoholic fermentation.

Application:

(i) Fermentation is widely used for the production of alcoholic beverage products like Whisky, Beer, etc.

(ii) Fermentation is widely used for the production of acids like citrus acid, lactic acid, alpha-amylase, etc.

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