Nitration is an example of aromatic electrophilic substitution

Question:

Nitration is an example of aromatic electrophilic substitution and its rate depends upon the group already present in the benzene ring. Out of benzene and phenol, which one is more easily nitrated and why?

Solution:

Phenol is more nitrated because of the presence of the hydroxyl group in phenol. Due to the resonance effect caused by –OH group, the ortho- and para-positions in the

benzene ring becomes electron-rich and therefore, activates it towards electrophilic substitution reaction. Thus, Nitration, an aromatic electrophilic substitution occurs at a

position where the electron density is high.

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