Solve the following

Question:

For $\mathrm{M}^{2+} / \mathrm{M}$ and $\mathrm{M}^{3+} / \mathrm{M}^{2+}$ systems, the $\mathrm{E}^{\ominus}$ values for some metals are as follows:

Cr2+/Cr −0.9V

Cr3/Cr2+ −0.4 V

Mn2+/Mn −1.2V

Mn3+ /Mn2+ +1.5 V

Fe2+ /Fe −0.4V

Fe3+/Fe2+ +0.8 V

Use this data to comment upon:

(i) The stability of Fe3+ in acid solution as compared to that of Cr3+ or Mn3+ and

(ii) The ease with which iron can be oxidised as compared to a similar process for either chromium or manganese metal.

Solution:

(i) The ${ }^{\Theta}$ value for $\mathrm{Fe}^{3+} / \mathrm{Fe}^{2+}$ is higher than that for $\mathrm{Cr}^{3+} / \mathrm{Cr}^{2+}$ and lower than that for $\mathrm{Mn}^{3+} / \mathrm{Mn}^{2+} .$ So, the reduction of $\mathrm{Fe}^{3+}$ to $\mathrm{Fe}^{2+}$ is easier than the reduction of $\mathrm{Mn}^{3+}$ to $\mathrm{Mn}^{2+}$, but not as easy as the reduction of $\mathrm{Cr}^{3+}$ to $\mathrm{Cr}^{2+} . \mathrm{Hence}, \mathrm{Fe}^{3+}$ is more stable than $\mathrm{Mn}^{3+}$, but less stable than $\mathrm{Cr}^{3+}$. These metal ions can be arranged in the increasing order of their stability as: $\mathrm{Mn}^{3+}<\mathrm{Fe}^{3+}<\mathrm{Cr}^{3+}$

(ii) The reduction potentials for the given pairs increase in the following order.

Mn2+ / Mn < Cr2+ / Cr < Fe2+ /Fe

So, the oxidation of Fe to Fe2+ is not as easy as the oxidation of Cr to Cr2+ and the oxidation of Mn to Mn2+. Thus, these metals can be arranged in the increasing order of their ability to get oxidised as: Fe < Cr < Mn

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