The halides of transition elements become


 The halides of transition elements become more covalent with increasing oxidation state of the metal. Why?


Halides become more covalent with increasing oxidation state. As the oxidation state increases, the charge on the atom increases and the size of the ion of transition

element decreases. Fajan’s rule’s states that greater the charge on an atom, greater the covalent character.

50. While filling up of electrons in the atomic orbitals, the 4s orbital is filled before the 3d orbital but the reverse happens during the ionisation of the atom. Explain why?


Electrons are filled according to the n+l rule. If an orbital has lower n+l value, then the electron will enter that orbital.

For 3d, n+l= 3+2=5

4s, n+l= 4+0=4

So, the electron will first enter 4s and then 3d while filling. But, 4s electrons are held loose by the nucleus and are outside of 3d, so removing a 4s electron becomes easier than removing a 3d electron.

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