The Rise of Nationalism In Europe Class 10 NotesClass 10
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The Rise of Nationalism in Europe is a significant topic in the history of the continent, and it plays a crucial role in shaping the current political scenario in Europe. The concept of nationalism emerged in Europe during the 18th century and reached its peak in the 19th and early 20th centuries. In this article, we will discuss The Rise of Nationalism In Europe Class 10 Notes. These notes cover the essential aspects of the rise of nationalism in Europe, including the causes and consequences of this movement, the major events and leaders associated with it, and the impact of nationalism on the politics and society of Europe. By understanding these notes, students can gain a better insight into the significance of nationalism in shaping the history and current affairs of Europe.
"We call a group of people, who share common descent, language, and history, inhabit a territory with defined limits, and form a society under one government, a nation."
Frederic Sorrieu and his visualization
In 1848, Frederic Sorrieu, a French artist, created a series of four prints that visualized his dream of a world consisting of "democratic and social republics."
The first print depicts the people of Europe and America marching in a long train and paying homage to the Statue of Liberty as they pass by it. A female figure carries the Charter of the Rights of Man in one hand and a torch of enlightenment in the other. The symbols of absolutist institutions lie shattered on the earth.
Sorrieu's utopian vision groups the people of the world into distinct nations identified by their flags and national costumes. The USA and Switzerland lead the procession, followed by France and Germany. Austria, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Lombardy, Poland, England, Ireland, Hungary, and Russia follow Germany. From the heavens above, Christ, saints, and angels gaze down at the scene, symbolizing fraternity among the nations of the world.
The French Revolution and the idea of Nation
- The growth of nationalism in France occurred due to the introduction of various measures and practices that created a sense of collective identity among the people.
- The monarchy was replaced, and a republic was established, along with the creation of a new assembly.
- Napoleon rose to power and implemented reforms.
- The revolutionaries helped other people in Europe to become a nation.
The making of Nationalism in Europe
- Autonomous rulers governed the divided kingdoms, duchies, and cantons of Germany, Italy, and Switzerland.
- Different languages were used within these regions.
- The middle class rose to prominence.
- Industrialization in England led to the emergence of a working class and liberalism.
- Traditional institutions were preserved after the new conservatism emerged in 1815.
- Following Napoleon's defeat, European governments adopted conservative policies that were often autocratic. Revolutionaries, such as Mazzini with his Young Italy and Young Europe movements, fought for liberty and freedom.
Unification of Italy - The Rise of Nationalism In Europe Class 10 Notes
- Giuseppe Mazzini played a crucial role in the unification of Italy by forming a secret society named 'Young Italy' in Marseilles to spread his ideas.
- He believed that Italy could not remain divided into small states and needed to be united into a single republic.
- Despite unsuccessful uprisings in 1831 and 1848, the responsibility to unify Italy fell on Sardinia-Piedmont and its ruler, Emmanuel II.
- With Chief Minister Cavour's leadership, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859 with the help of Garibaldi.
- In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and with the assistance of local peasants, drove out the Spanish rulers.
- Victor Emmanuel II was declared the King of United Italy in 1861.
Unification of Germany
- In the 18th century, Germany was divided into several states, some of which disappeared during the Napoleonic wars, leaving 39 independent states at the end of the war. Prussia was the most powerful and dominated by big landlords called Junkers.
- Middle-class Germans widely shared nationalist feelings and attempted to unite the various regions of the German federation into a nation-state governed by an elected Parliament.
- In May 1848, a vast number of political associations gathered to vote for an all-German National Assembly, which proposed the unification of Germany as a constitutional monarchy under the King of Prussia as emperor at Frankfurt.
- The King of Prussia refused the offer and the liberal initiative of nation-building was quashed by the monarchy, military, and Junkers.
- Subsequently, under the leadership of Chief Minister Otto Von Bismarck, Prussia spearheaded the movement for German unification, aided by the Prussian army and bureaucracy.
- Over seven years, Bismarck fought three wars against Denmark, Austria, and France, emerging victorious each time. Prussia's victory over France completed the unification process.
- On January 18, 1871, an assembly consisting of German State princes, army representatives, key Prussian ministers, and Bismarck convened in the Palace of Versailles and declared Kaiser William, the Prussian King, the new German Emperor
Visualizing the Nation - The Rise of Nationalism In Europe Class 10 Notes
- Marianne and Germania were both female allegories that represented the nation in the 19th century.
- Artists used Marianne to represent France, and her characteristics were drawn from those of liberty and republic.
- Marianne's popularity as a national symbol led to the erection of statues in public squares and her image being marked on coins and stamps.
- Germania became the allegory of the German nation, and she wore a crown of oak leaves as German oak stands for heroism.
- The image of the mother figure as a symbol of nations was preferred over the idea of fatherland.
- The Frankfurt Parliament hung an image of Germania from the ceiling of St. Paul's Church as a symbol of the liberal revolution.
- The government implemented the first major change by abolishing all privileges based on birth and establishing equality before the law, securing the right to property.
- They simplified the administrative divisions.
- The feudal system was abolished, and peasants were freed from serfdom and the abuse of manorial lords' manorial dues.
- Guild restrictions were removed in towns.
- They improved the transport and communication systems.
- Peasants, artisans, workers, and new businessmen were given a new sense of freedom.
- Businessmen and small-scale producers of goods realized that uniform laws, standardized weights and measures, and a common national currency would facilitate the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another.
Nationalism and Imperialism - The Rise of Nationalism In Europe Class 10 Notes
- Nationalism became a narrow creed with limited ends in the last quarter of the 19th century.
- Intolerance in the Balkans became the sense of big power rivalry.
- Nationalism was aligned with imperialism, which was a cause of World War I.
- The idea of nationalism was now the same everywhere.
- The concept of the national state was accepted universally.
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