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Agriculture Class 10 Notes

Class 10
Agriculture Class 10 Notes

Welcome to the article on Agriculture Class 10 Notes. In this article, we will explore the various aspects of agriculture, which is a crucial sector of the Indian economy. We will discuss the different types of crops grown in India, the major crop-producing states, and the initiatives taken by the government to improve the agricultural sector. Additionally, we will also delve into the challenges faced by the Indian farmers and the reforms needed to revamp the agricultural system. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of agriculture, which is an important topic from the Class 10 Social Science syllabus.

Types of Farming

The characteristics of the physical environment, technological know-how, and socio-cultural practices determine the cultivation methods. Farmers practice different types of farming, ranging from subsistence to commercial, depending on these factors. In India, various farming systems are practiced in different parts of the country.

Primitive Subsistence Farming - Agriculture Class 10 Notes

  1. Farmers practice 'slash and burn' agriculture where they clear a patch of land and cultivate cereals and other crops. When the soil fertility declines, they shift to a new patch of land for cultivation.
  2. This type of agriculture is known by different names in various parts of the country, such as jhumming in the north-eastern states.
  3. Low land productivity is a characteristic of this type of agriculture.
  4. 'Slash and burn' agriculture is dependent on the monsoon season.
  5. This type of farming is practiced in a few parts of India.

Intensive Subsistence Farming

Farmers practice this type of farming in areas with high population pressure on land. It involves intensive labor and the use of high doses of biochemical inputs and irrigation to achieve higher production.

Commercial Farming - Agriculture Class 10 Notes

  1. Farmers use higher doses of modern inputs such as high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, chemical fertilizers, insecticides, and pesticides to achieve higher productivity in this type of farming.
  2. Plantation is a commercial farming method where a single crop is grown over a large area.
  3. Plantations utilize capital-intensive inputs and require the help of migrant laborers to manage large tracts of land.
  4. The produce from plantations is primarily used as raw materials in various industries.
  5. Examples of crops grown in plantations include tea, coffee, rubber, sugarcane, and banana.

Cropping Pattern

India has three cropping seasons:- Agriculture Class 10 Notes

  1. Rabi
  2. Kharif
  3. Zaid
Rabi Kharif Zaid
Sowing Season Winter from October to December Beginning of the rainy season between April and May In between the Rabi and the Kharif seasons, there is a short season during the summer months known as the Zaid season (in the months of March to July)
Harvesting Season Summer from

April to June

Important Crops Wheat, Barley, Peas, Gram and Mustard. Paddy, Maize, Jowar, Bajra, Tur (Arhar),

Moong, Urad, Cotton, Jute, Groundnut and


Watermelon, Muskmelon, Cucumber,

Vegetables and Fodder crops

Major Crops in India

A variety of food and non-food crops are grown in different parts of India, depending upon the variations in soil, climate and cultivation practices. Major crops grown in India are:

  • Rice
  • Wheat
  • Millets
  • Pulses
  • Tea
  • Coffee
  • Sugarcane
  • oil seeds
  • Cotton
  • Jute

We will discuss all of these one by one, in detail.

Rice - Agriculture Class 10 Notes

  1. This is a kharif crop that requires high temperature, high humidity, and annual rainfall above 100 cm for proper growth.
  2. After China, India is the second-largest producer of rice in the world.
  3. Rice is primarily grown in the plains of north and north-eastern India, coastal areas, and deltaic regions.


  1. This crop is a rabi crop that requires a cool growing season and bright sunshine during ripening.
  2. For proper growth, it requires 50 to 75 cm of annual rainfall that is evenly distributed over the growing season.
  3. The Ganga-Satluj plains in the north-west and black soil region of the Deccan are the two primary wheat-growing zones in India.
  4. Wheat is the second most important cereal crop and main food crop in the north and north-western part of India.

Millets - Agriculture Class 10 Notes

Jowar Bajra Ragi
3rd most important food crop with respect to area and production. Grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil. It is a crop of dry regions.
It is a rain-fed crop mostly grown in the moist areas. Grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils.
Mainly produced in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. Major producing states are Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana. Major producing states are Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh.


  1. This is a Kharif crop that grows well in old alluvial soil and requires a temperature range of 21°C to 27°C for proper growth.
  2. Maize is used for both food and fodder.
  3. Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, and Telangana are the major maize-producing states in India. - Agriculture Class 10 Notes

Pulses - Agriculture Class 10 Notes

  1. India produces and consumes the largest amount of pulses in the world.
  2. Pulses serve as a major source of protein in a vegetarian diet.
  3. Tur (Arhar), Urad, Moong, Masur, Peas, and Gram are the major pulses grown in India.
  4. Pulses are usually grown in rotation with other crops to restore soil fertility.
  5. Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, and Karnataka are the major pulse-producing states in India.

Food Crops other than Grains

Sugarcane - Agriculture Class 10 Notes

  • Sugarcane is a crop that grows in both tropical and subtropical climates.
  • It requires hot and humid conditions with temperatures ranging from 21°C to 27°C, and annual rainfall between 75cm to 100cm.
  • Sugarcane can be cultivated on various types of soil.
  • The entire process of sowing, cultivating, and harvesting sugarcane requires manual labor.
  • India is the second largest producer of sugarcane in the world, after Brazil.
  • Sugarcane is a significant source of sugar, gur (jaggery), khansari, and molasses.
  • The major sugarcane-producing states in India are Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar, Punjab, and Haryana. -Agriculture Class 10 Notes

Oil Seeds

  • Different farmers in India grow various oilseeds, covering approximately 12% of the total cropped area.
  • Groundnut is a Kharif crop, accounting for half of the major oilseeds produced in India. Gujarat is the largest producer of groundnuts.
  • Mustard is a rabi crop, predominantly grown in the northwestern states of India.
  • Sesamum (til) is grown as a Kharif crop in the north and as a rabi crop in south India.
  • Castor seeds are grown as both Rabi and Kharif crops.
  • Linseed is a rabi crop cultivated mainly in Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Maharashtra.
  • Coconut, soybean, cotton seeds, and sunflower are other major oilseeds grown in different parts of India.

Tea - Agriculture Class 10 Notes

  • The British introduced tea plant in India as an important beverage crop. 
  • Tea plant thrives in tropical and sub-tropical regions, on deep, well-drained soil, rich in organic matter.
  • Tea bushes need warm and moist climate, without frost, throughout the year.
  • The tea industry demands intensive manual labour.
  • Assam, the hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts in West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala are the major states producing tea. - Agriculture Class 10 Notes


  • Indian farmers produce Yemen coffee, which is highly sought after globally.
  • They cultivate this variety of coffee on the Baba Budan Hills and limit its cultivation to the Nilgiri region in Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. - Agriculture Class 10 Notes

Horticulture Crops - Agriculture Class 10 Notes

  • India produces both tropical and temperate fruits as major crops, such as peas, cauliflower, onions, cabbage, tomatoes, brinjal and potatoes.
  • Some of the popular horticulture crops grown in India are:
    • Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal are known for their mangoes.
    • Oranges are grown in Nagpur and Cherrapunjee (Meghalaya), while bananas are grown in Kerala, Mizoram, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu.
    • Uttar Pradesh and Bihar produce litchi and guava.
    • Pineapples are grown in Meghalaya, and grapes in Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, and Maharashtra.
    • Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh are famous for their apples, pears, apricots, and walnuts.

Non-Food Crops - Agriculture Class 10 Notes

Rubber Fibre Cotton Jute
It is an equatorial crop. Cotton, Jute, Hemp and Natural Silk are the four major fibre crops. It is a Kharif crop. It is known as the golden fibre.
It requires a moist and humid climate with rainfall of more than 200cm and temperature above 25°C. Cotton, Jute and Hemp are grown in the soil. It requires high

temperature, light rainfall, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth.

It grows well on well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains. High temperature is required for its growth.
It is an important industrial raw material Natural Silk is obtained from cocoons of the silkworms fed on green leaves Cotton grows

well in black cotton soil of the Deccan plateau.

It is used in making gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets and other artefacts.
Mainly grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andaman and Nicobar islands and Garo hills of Meghalaya. Rearing of silkworms for the production of silk fibre is known as


Major cotton-producing states are Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh,

Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and

Uttar Pradesh.

Major jute producing states are West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Odisha and Meghalaya.

Technological and Institutional Reforms

  1. The Government has taken initiatives to improve agriculture, as it provides a livelihood for more than 60% of the population and requires technical and institutional reforms.

  2. Some of the initiatives taken by the Government are:

  • Introduction of schemes such as Kissan Credit Card (KCC) and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme (PAIS)
  • Introduction of special weather bulletins and agricultural programmes for farmers on radio and television
  • Announcement of minimum support price, remunerative and procurement prices for important crops to prevent the exploitation of farmers by speculators and middlemen
  1. The Green Revolution and the White Revolution were also reforms initiated by people to improve agriculture. - Agriculture Class 10 Notes

Contribution of Agriculture to the National Economy, Employment and Output

  • The farm sector employed about 52% of the total workforce in 2010-11.
  • The share of agriculture in the GDP is declining.
  • The government has introduced initiatives such as the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), agricultural universities, veterinary services and animal breeding centres, horticulture development, and research and development in the field of meteorology and weather forecast to improve Indian agriculture.

In conclusion, agriculture is the backbone of the Indian economy and plays a crucial role in providing livelihood to millions of people. Despite facing various challenges, the sector has shown remarkable growth and resilience over the years. The government has taken several initiatives to improve agriculture, such as introducing new technologies, schemes, and reforms. With continuous efforts towards modernization and sustainability, Indian agriculture can overcome its challenges and contribute to the overall development of the country. It is important for future generations to understand the significance of agriculture and work towards its betterment.


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Agriculture Class 10 Notes


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