- Each atom behaves like a complete magnet having a north and south pole of equal strength. The electrons revolving around the nucleus in an atom are equivalent to small current loops which behave as a magnetic dipole.
- In unmagnetized magnetic substance these atomic magnets (represented by arrows) are randomly oriented and form closed chains. The atomic magnets cancel the effect of each other and thus resultant magnetism is zero.
- In a magnetized substance, all the atomic magnets are aligned in the same direction and thus resultant magnetism is non-zero.
The atomic theory explains the following facts in magnetism.
- Non existence of monopoles. The magnetic poles always exist in pairs and are of equal strength.
- When a magnet breaks, then each part behaves like a complete magnet.
- The magnetization of an electromagnet can be explained as the alignment of atomic magnets in direction of the magnetic field.
- This explains the phenomenon of saturation magnetization i.e. acquired magnetism remains constant even on increasing the external magnetizing field.
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