Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 NotesClass 10
Forest and wildlife resources are vital components of the earth's ecosystem that provide essential ecological, economic, and social benefits. They are an invaluable asset that needs to be conserved and managed sustainably for the present and future generations. In India, the significance of these resources is even more crucial due to the country's rich and diverse biodiversity. Class 10 students can learn about the conservation, management, and sustainable utilization of forest and wildlife resources through these comprehensive notes. These notes cover essential topics like classification of species, conservation measures, government policies, community participation, and more. By understanding the importance of forest and wildlife resources and learning how to protect them, students can contribute to a sustainable and greener future for India and the world.
Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Notes- Flora and Fauna in India
India possesses an extensive range of biological diversity, making it one of the world's wealthiest countries in this regard. India is home to diverse varieties of forest and wildlife resources. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), we can categorize the existing plant and animal species as follows:
- Normal Species: Species that require standard population levels to survive, such as cattle, sal, pine, and rodents.
- Endangered Species: These species face a high risk of extinction. Examples include black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass, Indian rhino, lion-tailed macaque, sangai (brow antler deer in Manipur), and more.
- Vulnerable Species: These species have experienced population declines and are likely to move into the endangered category soon if the decline continues. Blue sheep, Asiatic elephant, Gangetic dolphin, and others are examples.
- Rare Species: These species have a small population and could become endangered or vulnerable if the factors affecting them continue to operate. Examples include the Himalayan brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox, and hornbill.
- Endemic Species: These species are exclusive to specific regions, which are typically separated by natural or geographical barriers. Andaman teal, Nicobar pigeon, Andaman wild pig, and Mithun in Arunachal Pradesh are examples.
- Extinct Species: These species no longer exist in a particular area, region, country, continent, or on Earth. Asiatic cheetah and pink head duck are examples.
What are the negative factors that cause such fearful depletion of the flora and fauna?
- Humans excessively consume natural resources, such as wood, barks, leaves, rubber, medicines, dyes, food, fuel, fodder, and manure, to fulfill their needs.
- The expansion of railways, agriculture, commercial and scientific forestry, and mining activities contributes to the depletion of natural resources.
- Large-scale development of projects and mining activities accelerate the exhaustion of natural resources.
- Unequal access to resources, inequitable consumption, and differential sharing of responsibility for environmental well-being are factors that contribute to resource depletion.
Conservation of Forest and Wildlife in India - Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Notes
- Preserving ecological diversity and genetic diversity of plants and animals is the main objective of conservation.
- The Indian government implemented the Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act in 1972 to safeguard habitats and published an all-India list of protected species.
- The central government also declared several projects to safeguard specific animals. Under the Wildlife Act of 1980 and 1986, authorities added several hundred butterflies, moths, beetles, and one dragonfly to the list of protected species.
- In 1991, officials added six species of plants to the list for the first time.
Types and Distribution of Forest and Wildlife Resources
- The government of India owns and manages forest and wildlife resources through the Forest Department or other government departments.
- The Forest Department classifies these resources under the following categories.
- The government has declared more than half of the total forest land in India as reserved forests.
- The Forest Department has declared one-third of the total forest area as protected forests.
- Unclassed forests are those that belong to both the government and private individuals and communities. The northeastern states and parts of Gujarat have a very high percentage of their forests as unclassed forests.
- Authorities maintain reserved and protected forests, also known as permanent forests, for the production of timber and other forest produce, as well as for protective reasons.
- Madhya Pradesh has the largest area under permanent forests.
Community and Conservation - Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Notes
- Common people have taken several steps to conserve forest and wildlife resources as they are vital to the ecosystem.
- In Sariska Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan, villagers fought against mining by citing the Wildlife Protection Act.
- The inhabitants of five villages in the Alwar district of Rajasthan declared 1,200 hectares of forest as the Bhairodev Dakav ‘Sonchuri’ and came up with their own set of rules and regulations to protect wildlife against hunting and encroachments.
- The famous Chipko movement in the Himalayas successfully resisted deforestation in several areas and led to community afforestation.
- Farmers and citizen’s groups like the Beej Bachao Andolan in Tehri and Navdanya have demonstrated that adequate levels of diversified crop production without the use of synthetic chemicals are possible and economically viable.
- The Joint Forest Management (JFM) programme in India provides a good example of involving local communities in the management and restoration of degraded forests.
In conclusion, the Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Notes provide a comprehensive understanding of the importance of forest and wildlife resources and the measures that can be taken to protect them. The sustainable management and conservation of these resources are critical for the survival of numerous species and the overall health of our planet. With the knowledge gained from these notes, students can play a vital role in preserving our natural heritage and contribute to the sustainable development of the country. It is essential to recognize the importance of forest and wildlife resources and take collective action towards their conservation and management. By doing so, we can ensure a greener and more sustainable future for ourselves and generations to come.
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