Get Dream College with eSaral Gurukul | 40% OFF - Launch Offer | Limited Seats

Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

Class 10
Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes provide a comprehensive overview of the various types of minerals and energy resources available in India. The article covers the importance of these resources for the economic development of the country and their usage in different sectors such as industry, transport, and agriculture. It also highlights the need for sustainable and planned utilization of these resources to minimize wastage and maximize their benefits. The article further discusses the different types of minerals and energy resources found in India, their distribution, and the challenges associated with their extraction and usage. Overall, these notes are a valuable resource for students looking to gain a deeper understanding of the importance and utilization of minerals and energy resources in India.

Mineral -Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

Geologists identify a mineral as a "homogeneous, naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure." They use physical and chemical properties to identify it.


Rocks form through combinations or aggregates of minerals in varying proportions. While some rocks consist of a single mineral, such as limestone, most rocks consist of several minerals.

The term ‘ore’ is used to describe an accumulation of any mineral mixed with other elements.

The following forms generally contain minerals

  • Minerals can occur in veins and lodes in cracks, faults, or joints of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Veins are smaller occurrences while lodes are larger, and they contain metallic minerals like tin, copper, zinc, and lead.
  • Sedimentary rocks contain minerals in beds or layers that form through deposition, accumulation, and concentration in horizontal strata. Some sedimentary minerals like gypsum, potash, and salt are formed through evaporation, especially in arid regions.
  • Weathering and decomposition of surface rocks can result in the formation of minerals like bauxite, leaving a residual mass of weathered material containing ores.
  • Alluvial deposits in sands of valley floors and the base of hills, known as placer deposits, contain certain minerals like gold, silver, tin, and platinum, which are not corroded by water. Additionally, ocean waters contain vast quantities of minerals like common salt, magnesium, and bromide, while the ocean beds are rich in manganese nodules.

Types of iron ores - Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

Magnetite, Hematite, Siderite and Limonite.

  • Magnetite has excellent magnetic qualities and is considered the finest iron ore available, with up to 70% iron content. It is particularly valuable in the electrical industry.
  • On the other hand, Hematite is the most important industrial iron ore in terms of quantity used, with 50-60% iron content.

 Major Iron ore belts

  • High-grade hematite ore is found in Badampahar Mines in the Odisha-Jharkhand Belt.
  • The Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur Belt contains super high-grade hematite ore deposits in the Bailadila Mines. Iron ore from these mines is exported to Japan and South Korea.
  • Kudremukh Mines in the Bellary-Chitradurga-Chikmaglur Tumkur Belt in Karnataka is a 100 percent export unit, and the ore is transported as slurry to a port near Mangalore.
  • The Maharashtra-Goa Belt, specifically the Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra, does not have very high-quality ores, and the iron ore is exported through Marmagao port.

Aluminium  - Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

Aluminum is an important metal that is obtained from bauxite ore. It possesses the strength of metals like iron, is highly lightweight, has good conductivity, and is incredibly malleable.


The decomposition of a wide variety of rocks rich in aluminum silicates leads to the formation of bauxite deposits. Odisha leads in bauxite production, accounting for 45% of India's total bauxite production. The most significant bauxite deposits in India are located in Panchpatmali in the Koraput district. Gujarat (17%), Jharkhand (14%), and Maharashtra (11%) are other states where bauxite production takes place.


Mica comprises a series of plates or leaves and can be easily split into thin sheets, with a thousand sheets measuring only a few centimeters thick. Mica is essential to the electric and electronic industry due to its excellent di-electric strength, low power loss factor, insulating properties, and resistance to high voltage. Mica deposits are primarily located in the northern edge of the Chhota Nagpur Plateau, with Jharkhand being the leading producer. The Koderma-Gaya-Hazaribagh belt in Jharkhand is the most significant mica-producing region in India.

Dangers involved in mining are—Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

Miners are at risk of the following:

  • Collapsing mine roofs
  • Inundation, which is flooding in mines
  • Fires in coal-mines, posing a constant threat
  • Inhalation of poisonous gases, dust, and noxious fumes, making miners vulnerable to pulmonary diseases.

Adverse effects of mining on the environment:

The following actions cause environmental degradation:

  • Contamination of water sources in the region
  • Dumping of slurry and waste, leading to land and soil degradation
  • Increase in stream and river pollution.

We need to conserve minerals because:

Minerals take a long geological period of millions of years to form. They are finite in nature, non-renewable, and exhaustible. The rate of consumption of minerals is much higher than the rate of their replenishment. We must preserve minerals for future generations.

Methods of mineral conservation:- Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

  1. Using minerals in a planned and sustainable manner is necessary.
  2. Evolving improved technologies to allow the use of low-grade ores at low cost is important.
  3. Recycling of metals, using scrap metals and other substitutes, is a viable option.
  4. Minimizing wastage in mining, processing and distribution is necessary.
  5. Controlling the export of minerals can help in conservation efforts.
  6. Energy resources can be classified as conventional and non-conventional sources.

Conventional sources

include coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity (both hydel and thermal). All these sources have been in use for quite some time.

Non-conventional sources - Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

  • Recently, large-scale generation of non-conventional sources of energy has started.
  • These sources include solar, wind, tidal, geothermal, biogas, and atomic energy.

"Coal"an important source of energy

  • Coal is abundantly available and provides a substantial part of the nation's energy needs.
  • It is used to generate power and supply energy for industrial and domestic needs.
  • India is highly dependent on coal to meet its commercial needs, with a share of 67% in total.
  • Coal can be easily converted into other forms of energy, such as electricity, gas, and oil.
  • Iron and steel industry depends heavily on it as an essential raw material.
  • Chemical and synthetic textile industries also rely on it for raw material.
  • Various coal-based products, such as coal tar, graphite, and soft coke, are processed in different industries.
  • The power generation industry is primarily based on this fossil fue

Types of coal - Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

  • Anthracite is the highest quality hard coal with more than 80% carbon content. It produces less smoke when burnt.
  • Bituminous coal, with 60-80% carbon content, is the most popular coal in commercial use. Metallurgical coal, a high grade bituminous coal, is particularly valuable for smelting iron in blast furnaces.
  • Lignite is a low grade brown coal with high moisture content. The main reserve of lignite is located in Neyveli, Tamil Nadu.
  • Peat has a low carbon and high moisture content, and low heating capacity. When burnt, it produces a lot of smoke.

Occurrence of coal

  • The Gondwana Coal Belt is a little over 200 million years old and contains mainly metallurgical coal.
  • The important coal mines of Jharia, Raniganj, and Bokaro are located in the Damodar Valley Belt (West Bengal, Jharkhand).
  • Other coal belts in the Gondwana Coal Belt include the Godavari Valley Belt, the Mahanadi Valley Belt, and the Wardha Valley Belt.
  • Tertiary coal deposits are comparatively younger, being only about 55 million years old.
  • These deposits are found in the northeastern states of Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, and Nagaland.


  • Petroleum is the second most important energy source in India after coal.
  • It can be easily transported through pipelines and leaves no residue.
  • Petroleum is used as a fuel for heat and light and provides lubricants for machinery.
  • It serves as a raw material for various manufacturing industries.
  • It is a significant fuel used in the transportation sector.
  • Petroleum refineries play a crucial role as a nodal industry for synthetic textiles, fertilizers, and many chemical industries.

Occurrence ,formation and distribution of petroleum

  • Petroleum occurrences in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of the tertiary age.
  • Oil is trapped in the crest of the upfold in regions of folding anticlines.
  • The oil bearing layer is porous limestone or sandstone through which oil may flow.
  • Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous and non-porous rocks.
  • Mumbai High is the richest offshore oilfield in India, accounting for about 63% of the country's petroleum production.
  • Gujarat produces 18% of India's petroleum, with Ankaleshwar being the most important field.
  • Assam is the oldest oil producing State in India, contributing 16% to the total production.
  • Important oilfields in Assam include Digboi, Naharkatiya, and Moran-Hugrijan. - Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

  • Nuclear Energy:
    Nuclear energy is obtained by altering the structure of atom. When the structure of an atom is altered, too much energy is released in the form of heat. This heat is utilised to generate electric power. Uranium and Thorium are used for generating atomic power. These minerals are available in Jharkhand, Aravalli ranges of Rajasthan. - Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes
  • Solar Energy:
    Photovoltaic technology is used to convert solar energy into electricity. The largest solar plant of India is located at Madhapur near Bhuj. Solar energy holds great promises for the future. It can help in minimizing the dependence on firewood and animal dung cakes in rural areas. This will also help in conservation of fossil fuels.
  • Wind Power:
    The wind farm cluster in Tamil Nadu (from Nagarcoil to Madurai) is the largest cluster in India. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra and Lakshadweep are also important centres of wind power production. India is now a “Wind Super Power” in the world.
  • Biogas:
    Biogas can be produced from shrubs, farm waste, and animal and human waste. It is more efficient than kerosene, dung cake and charcoal. Biogas plants can be set up at municipal, cooperative and individual levels. The gobar gas plants provide energy and also manure. Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes
  • Tidal Energy:
    Dams are built across inlets. The water flows into the inlet during high tide and gets trapped when the gate is closed. Once the tide recedes, the floodgates are opened so that water can flow back to the sea. The flow of water is used to run the turbine to generate electricity. A 900 mw tidal energy power plant is set up by the National Hydropower Corporation in the Gulf of Kuchchh.
  • Geo Thermal Energy:
    We know that the inside of the earth is very hot. At some places, this heat is released on the surface through fissures. Groundwater in such areas becomes hot and rises up in the form of steam. This steam is used to drive turbines. Two geo thermal energy projects—the Parvati valley near Manikam in Himachal Pradesh and the Puga valley in Ladakh. - Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes

Importance of energy

  1. All activities require energy, including cooking, lighting, heating, transportation, and machinery in industries. Energy is essential for economic development and every sector of the national economy - agriculture, industry, transport, and commerce - requires greater inputs of energy.
  2. Electricity demands are increasing due to the growing use of electrical gadgets and appliances.
  3. To reduce energy consumption and promote sustainable energy use, it is important to:
  • Use public transport systems instead of individual vehicles.
  • Switch off electrical devices when not in use and use power-saving devices.
  • Utilize non-conventional sources of energy such as solar energy and wind energy.
  • Regularly check power equipment for damages and leakages. -Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes


Download the eSaral App for complete Class 10 Video lectures, Study material, revision and much more.

Minerals And Energy Resources Class 10 Notes


Also read,

Class 10 NCERT Science notes -All Chapters

Power Sharing Notes Class 10th

Federalism Class 10 Notes

Democracy and Diversity Class 10 Notes

Popular Struggles and Movements Class 10 Notes

Challenges to Democracy Class 10 Notes

Development Class 10 notes

Sectors Of Indian Economy Class 10 Notes

Globalisation and the Indian Economy Class 10 Notes

Consumer Rights For Class 10 Notes

Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Notes



Leave a comment


Click here to get exam-ready with eSaral

For making your preparation journey smoother of JEE, NEET and Class 8 to 10, grab our app now.

Download Now