DEFINITION
A neutral point in the magnetic field of a bar magnet is that point where the field due to the magnet is completely neutralized by the horizontal component of the earth’s magnetic field. At neutral point field due to bar magnet (B) is equal and opposite to horizontal component of earth’s magnetic field $\left( B _{ H }\right) or \quad B = B _{ H }$
The neutral point when the north pole of a magnet is towards the geographical north of the earth.
The neutral points $N_{1}$ and $N_{2}$ lie on the equatorial line. The magnetic field due to magnet at a neutral point is
$B =\frac{\mu_{0}}{4 \pi} \frac{ M }{\left( r ^{2}+\ell^{2}\right)^{\frac{3}{2}}}$
Where M is the magnetic dipole moment of the magnet, $2 l$is its length, and r is a distance of the neutral point.
At neutral point $B = B _{ H } \cdot \quad$ so $\quad \frac{\mu_{0}}{4 \pi} \frac{ M }{\left( r ^{2}+\ell^{2}\right)^{\frac{3}{2}}}= B _{ H }$
For a small bar magnet $\left(\ell^{2}<< r ^{2}\right)$ then $\frac{\mu_{0}}{4 \pi} \frac{ M }{ r ^{3}}= B _{ H }$

Neutral point when south pole of a magnet is towards geographical north of earth.
The neutral points $N_{1}$ and $N_{2}$ lie on the axial line of magnet. The magnetic field due to magnet
at neutral point is $B =\frac{\mu_{0}}{4 \pi} \frac{2 Mr }{\left( r ^{2}\ell^{2}\right)^{2}}$
At neutral point $B =\frac{\mu_{0}}{4 \pi} \frac{2 Mr }{\left( r ^{2}\ell^{2}\right)^{2}}$ so $\frac{\mu_{0}}{4 \pi} \frac{2 Mr }{\left( r ^{2}\ell^{2}\right)^{2}}= B _{ H }$
For a small bar magnet $\left(\ell^{2}<< r ^{2}\right)$ then $\frac{\mu_{0}}{4 \pi} \frac{2 M }{ r ^{3}}= B _{ H }$
Special Point
When a magnet is placed with its S pole towards north of earth neutral points lie on its axial line. If magnet is placed with its N pole towards north of earth neutral points lie on its equatorial line. So neutral points are displaced by $90^{\circ}$ on rotating magnet through $180^{\circ}$ In general if magnet is rotated by angle $\theta$ neutral point turn through an angle $\frac{\theta}{2}$
Neutral Point in Special Cases
(a) If two bar magnets are placed with their axis parallel to each other and their opposite poles face each other then there is only one neutral point (x) on the perpendicular bisector of the axis equidistant from the two magnets.
(b) If two bar magnets are placed with their axis parallel to each other and their like poles face each other then there are two neutral points on a line equidistant from the axis of the magnets.
Also Read: Properties of Paramagnetic & Diamagnetic Materials
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