Explain with examples
Explain with examples

(i) Atomic number,

(ii) Mass number,

(iii) Isotopes and

(iv) Isobars.

Give any two uses of isotopes.


(i) Atomic number

The atomic number of an element is the total number of protons present in the atom of that element. For example, nitrogen has 7 protons in its atom. Thus, the atomic number of nitrogen is 7.

(ii) Mass numbers

The mass number of an element is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons present in the atom of that element. For example, the atom of boron has 5 protons and 6 neutrons. So, the mass number of boron is 5 + 6 = 11.

(iii) Isotopes

Isotopes are atoms of the same element having the same atomic number, but different mass numbers. For example, hydrogen has three isotopes. They are protium, deuterium, and tritium.

(iv) Isobars

Isobars are atoms having the same mass number, but different atomic numbers i.e., isobars are atoms of different elements having the same mass number. For example, ${ }_{20}^{40} \mathrm{Ca}$ and ${ }_{18}^{40} \mathrm{Ar}$ are isobars.

Two uses of isotopes are:

(i) One isotope of uranium is used as a fuel in nuclear reactors.

(ii) One isotope of cobalt is used in the treatment of cancer.

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