How are the intracellular levels of ions maintained

Question:

How are the intracellular levels of ions maintained higher than extracellular levels in animal cells?

Solution:

Animal cells have ATP powered pumps like the Na+- K+ pump where 3Na+ is sent out in exchange of 2 K+ ions thus increasing the level of K+ ions in the intracellular

region. This is how via the pumps, ion concentration is maintained higher intracellularly than in the extracellular region.

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